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Federalist Period

VUS.6 Washington-Madison

Why did political parties develop? Debate over Hamilton's financial plan and the creation of the National Bank
Who were the leaders of the Federalist Party? John Adams and Alexander Hamilton
What did the Federalist party support? a strong national government and an industrial economy
What type of people supported the Federalist Party? bankers and those with business interests in the Northeast
Who were the leaders of the Democratic-Republican Party? Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
What did the Democratic-Republican party support? a weak national government and agrarian economy
What type of people supported the Democratic-Republicans? farmers, artisans and frontier settlers in the south
What is significant about the election of 1800 and who won? Thomas Jefferson; first presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one political party to another
Who purchased the Louisiana Territory from France and what impact did it have on the United States? Thomas Jefferson; doubled the size of the United States
Who was sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase? Lewis and Clark
Who was Sacajawea? an Indian woman who served as the guide and translator for Lewis and Clark
What countries fought in the War of 1812? United States and Britain
Why did the United States go to war with Britain? Great Britain was interfering with U.S. shipping and encouraging Native American attacks on western frontier
Which political party opposed the War of 1812? Federalists
Which president issued the declaration of war against Britain in 1812? James Madison
What was the result of the War of 1812? America claimed the Oregon Territory and there was increased migration of American settlers into Florida
Who was the first Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
Who was the first Secretary of Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
What is a strict interpretation of the Constitution? a belief held by Democratic-Republicans that the powers of the national government are strictly defined by the Constitution
What is a loose interpretation of the Constitution? a belief held by the Federalists that the powers of the national government should be broad and implied
What is the Elastic Clause of the Constitution? A clause supporting implied powers by stating Congress can "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper"
What was the most important provision of Jay's Treaty? Great Britain agreed to leave forts in the Ohio Valley
What was the most important provision of Pinckney's Treaty? Reinforcement of the boundary between Spain and the United States and access to the lower Mississippi River
What was the XYZ Affair? France asked the US for a bribe and resulted in an undeclared war with France during John Adams' presidency
Who was the most important chief justice of the Supreme Court during the early years of the United States? John Marshall
How did the Supreme Court strengthen under the leadership of John Marshall? The judicial branch became an independent and equal branch of government
What is judicial review? power of the courts to declare a law unconstitutional
what were the three important cases decided by the Supreme Court during Marshall's time as Chief Justice? Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden
What precedent was established in Marbury v. Madison? Judicial Review
What precedent was established in McCulloch v. Maryland? Congress possesses implied powers and the national government remains superior to state governments
What precedent was established in Gibbons v. Ogden? The federal government has complete control over interstate commerce
What is impressment? The British practice of drafting sailors by force that led to the War of 1812
Who were the War Hawks? Southern and western congressmen who wanted war with Great Britain
What region of the United States opposed war with Great Britain? New England
What did Federalists in New England propose at the Hartford Convention but fail to accomplish? constitutional amendments and secession
What was the result of the Federalist criticism of the War of 1812? Federalist Party collapsed
Which future president gained popularity after his victory at the Battle of New Orleans? Andrew Jackson
What treaty officially ended the War of 1812? The Treaty of Ghent
What three things did Washington warn the nation of in his farewell address? Avoid sectionalism, political parties and involvement in foreign affairs
What are the Alien and Sedition Acts? Laws passed by John Adams aimed at reducing the power of Democratic-Republican opponents by making voter registration difficult and making it illegal to speak poorly about the government
Created by: suireh