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Constitution

VUS.5 Constitution

QuestionAnswer
Why were American political leaders fearful of a strong national government? They did not want a strong government like England had
What document created the first national government in the United States? The Articles of Confederation
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? No power to tax or regulate interstate commerce, no common currency, no executive or judicial branches
What could the national government do under the Articles of Confederation Declare war, raise an army, sign treaties, run the post office
What is the basis for membership in the Senate? Equality (2 senators from each state)
What is the basis for membership in the House of Representatives? Population
What is the 3/5 Compromise? Allowed southern states to count slaves as 3/5 of the population when determining representation in the House of Representatives
How did the government prevent any one branch from gaining too much power? checks and balances
Who presided over the Constitutional Convention as Chairman? George Washington
Who is considered the "Father of the Constitution?" James Madison
What was the Virginia Plan and who authored it? James Madison - proposed 3 separate branches and a bicameral Congress based on population
What was the Great Compromise? Satisfied both large and small states by creating a bicameral Congress with the Senate based on equal representation and the House of Representatives based on population
Who authored the Bill of Rights? James Madison
Who were the Federalists? Those favoring the strong national government created by the Constitution that facilitated interstate commerce, managed foreign relations and national defense.
Why did the Federalists feel a Bill of Rights was not necessary? It would be redundant since most states already had bills of rights that clearly defined basic rights in individual state constitutions
Who were the Anti-Federalists? Those believing a strong national government would take power away from the states
How did the Federalists convince the Anti-Federalists to ratify the Constitution in Virginia? They pledged to add a Bill of Rights clearly defining basic rights to the Constitution
What was the Virginia Declaration of Rights? A list of basic human rights not to be violated by the state government in Virginia
Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights? George Mason
What was the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom? A law that outlawed the government from supporting a favored church
Who wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom? Thomas Jefferson
What two documents did James Madison consult when writing the Bill of Rights? The Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who expanded the power of the federal courts? John Marshall
What is the significance of the Marbury v. Madison decision? John Marshall established judicial review (the right to check the constitutionality of a law)
What is the significance of the McCulloch v. Maryland decision? States were prohibited from taxing the federal government "the power to tax is the power to destroy" (federal law is supreme to state law)
What is the significance of the Gibbons v. Ogden decision? The court strengthened the power of the United States to regulate interstate commerce
Where did the Constitutional Convention meet? Philadelphia
What rebellion showed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Shays' Rebellion
What is federalism? the division of power between the national and the state governments
What was the New Jersey Plan? proposed a unicameral legislature based on equal representation
What does separation of powers mean? The division of power among different branches of the national government
What are the three branches of the government created by the Constitution and what do they do? Legislative (makes laws), Executive (enforces laws), Judicial (interprets laws)
How many states were needed to ratify the Constitution? 3/4 (9 states)
Who were the two leading Federalists from Virginia? George Washington and James Madison
Who were the two leading Anti-Federalists from Virginia? Patrick Henry and George Mason
What is the Bill of Rights? First 10 amendments to the Constitution
What is an amendment? An addition to the Constitution
What are the Federalist Papers? a series of essays written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison used to convince New York to ratify the Constitution
What was created to ensure only the most educated citizens elected the president? Electoral College
Why did the Anti-Federalists insist on a Bill of Rights? To ensure the national government could not violate the basic human rights of the citizens
Created by: suireh