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Genetics Set III

Mitosis & Meiosis

What is mitosis the replication of? replication of the nucleus
What is cytokinesis the replication of? replication of cytoplasm
How do bacteria divide? by binary fission (or prokaryotic fission)
What does meiosis make? gametes
a mature egg or sperm cell gametes
steps of binary fission bacterial cell grows, DNA duplicates, cell pinches in half
stage of eukar. cell cycle where the cell is active & maybe preparing to divide interphase
What is the longest stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle? interphase
What is the 2nd longest stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle? mitosis
What is the shortest stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle? cytokinesis
How do single-celled eukaryotes reproduce? by mitosis
How do multicellular eukaryotes grow? by mitosis
How do multicellular eukaryotes replace worn-out cells? by mitosis
process in which daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original cell in eukaryotes mitosis
Name one difference b/w mitosis and binary fission? Mitosis occurs in eukaryotes, binary fission occurs in prokaryotes
What does binary fission result in? two identical bacteria cells
Can chromosomes be seen in interphase? No, they are so thin that they cannot be seen individually
DNA/protein complex that forms chromosomes chromatin
area where sister chromatids are joined centromere
where the ribosmal subunits are created nucleolus
What starts to form during prophase? spindle fibers
What phase in the cell cycle does the nuclear envelope and nucleolus goes away? prophase
What phase in the cell cycle does the duplicated chromosomes become visible as they condense? prophase
steps of interphase G1, S, G2
Mitosis begins w/ what phase? mitosis
Plant cell walls are made up of what polysaccharide? cellulose
In what phase of cell division do spindle fibers move duplicated to the middle of the spindle? metaphase
another name for the nuclear membrane nuclear envelope
What are the three kinds of mitotic spindle? aster MTs, kinetochore MTs, non-kinetochorse MTs
What makes up the spindle fibers? microtubles
In what phase of cell division do the sister chromatids separate from each other & move to opposite poles of the spindle? anaphase
the two halves of the duplicated chromosomes sister chromatids
In telophase, the events of ______ are reversed. prophase
In what phase of cell division do the nuclear envelopes & nuclei form, chromosomes decondense, and the spindle disassembles? telophase
Do the steps of mitosis and meiosis have the same names? Essentially, yes, but meiosis also has like prophase I, prophase II, etc.
What in animal cells pinches the cell w/ two nuclei into two cells, each w/ one nucleus? cleavage furrow
Do plant cells pinch in half when undergoing cytokinesis? No, instead a cell plate forms b/w the two nuclei, building a cell wall b/w them
What are chromosomes big molecules of DNA that contain the genes of an organism
Do all organisms have the same number of chromosomes? No it varies
How pairs of chromosomes are in a human cell? 23
What are prokaryotic chromosomes like? They are circular molecules of DNA
Where are there chromosomes in a cell? chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus
What are eukaryotic nuclear chromosomes like? They are long linear molecules of DNA
What do nuclear chromosomes contain that help make the chromosomes fit into the nucleus? proteins
What are the proteins that help chromosomes fit into the nucleus called? histones and non-histone proteins
What are organisms that have pairs of chromosomes called? diploid
Are gametes diploid or haploid? haploid (1n)
What is unique about the autosomal chromosomes in humans? They are the same in everyone
What is another name for the first 22 chromosomes? autosome
Created by: OnChromebook