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Hominids. (1) Type of humans before homo sapiens.
Homo sapiens. (4) Only surviving human species between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, had advantages over other species (bipedalism, opposable thumbs, large brain that that had well developed reflection and consciousness), built tools, cave paintings.
Paleolithic. (10) Old Stone Age, ended in 8000 BCE, humans inhabited all continents except Antarctica, humans survived by hunting and gathering, traveled in small groups, nomads, no status differences, division of labor was based on sex but equality, had free time.
Neolithic. (11) Agricultural Revolution, marker event, occurred at different times over the world, horticulture-only hand tools, pastoralists-first domesticators of animals, not nomadic, specialization, inequality, social classes, surplus of food, polytheistic, pottery
Lucy. (3) Bipedal creature that lived before humans, helped scientists understand evolution, became extinct.
Great Rift Valley. (3) Name for the trench between Asia to southeastern Africa, shows changes in Earth, the neolithic people refused to cross it.
Location of Mesopotamia. (6) Earliest civilization, "land between two rivers", southwest Asia, Tigris and Euphrates River, became a crossroad for travelers, Fertile Crescent.
Mesopotamia civilization/rulers. (5) Fighting city states, Sumerians took over Semites, city states were ruled by theocracies (priests), Sargon the Great united the city states into the Akkadian Empire with kings, Hammurabi and the Babylonians (first written law code that gave punishments)
Major achievement/Characteristics of Mesopotamia. (11) Writing developed in 3500 BCE,- cuneiform, agriculture, trade, labor systems, (different jobs working together) slaves, Epic of Gilgamesh- oral story about religion, believed that gods intervened in human lives, ziggurats, amulets, Semitic language, seals
Location of Egypt. (8) Nile River, northeastern Africa, hot and dry, isolated, desert and cataracts (unsafe river) served as protection from invaders, predictable flooding, farming.
Civilization/Rulers of Egypt. (7) Reflected importance of religion, pharaoh- leader (divine), Menes- first pharaoh, Old, Middle, and New Kingdom, social mobility, patriarchy, invaded by the Hiscus.
Major achievements/Characteristics of Egypt. (12) Longest lasting civilization, pottery and metal work, traded with Mesopotamia, pyramids, solar calendar, medical knowledge, hieroglyphics- writing, polytheistic, Book of the Dead, unified in 3000 BCE, mummification, statues.
Location of India. (7) Current day Pakistan, Mohenjo Daro/Harappa- major city, Indus River was formed by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush Mountains (protection), monsoons.
Civilizations/Rulers of India. (4) Distinct social classes, priestly class dominated, conquered by Aryans, unknown but gradual decline (systems failure).
Major achievements/Characteristics of India. (5) Advanced in agriculture, Mohenjo Daro/Harappa- trade, seals- helped scientists identify the language, very little known about the civilization.
Location of China. (10) Yellow/Huange He River- loess, eastern Asia, isolated, Yangzi River, irregular flooding- dikes, hoes and canals, most lived in eastern China.
Civilizations/Rulers of China. (7) Dynasties- Shang, Zhou, (west and east capitols, shi- men of service, educated), social classes: elite (dynasty), peasants, slaves ("mean people",) women lost status gradually, mandate of heaven- allowed the Zhou to overthrow the Shang, dynastic cycle
Major achievements/Characteristics of China. (11) Metallurgy, cities, not very religious (no strong priestly class), oracle bones- ask ancestors for help (led by shamans), writing- pictograph, valued family and ancestors, emphasized education and literacy, Confucianism, Analects, Book of Songs- poetry
Geography of Greece and its effects. (8) Aegean Sea, Island of Crete, mountainous- little farming, formation of city states (polis), dependent on water and sailing, lots of islands, little land travelling, poor soil
Minoans. (3) First Greek civilization, located on the Island of Crete, replaced by the Mycenaean.
Mycenaeans. (3) Replaced Minoans, took part in the Trojan War with Troy,(Anatolia), fall led to a small dark age until the Phoenicians took over and ended the isolation.
Homer. (3) Wrote the Iliad (Trojan War, Greek bias) and the Odyssey (hero- Odysseus), epic poet.
Hoplites. (3) Soldiers that otherwise served as farmers, had a quick but deadly fighting style, no fighting during harvest seasons.
Phalanx. (1) Rectangular formation of hoplites.
Persian Wars. (5) Persians conquered Athenian territory, Ionia, Athenians went to supply them with weapons and angered the Persians, Spartans teamed up with Athens to defeat Persia, effect- made Athens the most significant polis, period 2.
Pericles. (4) Athenian general that caused the Peloponnesian War by moving the treasury to Athens and forcing the other city states to become a part of the Delian League, general during golden age of Athens.
Delian League. (1) Forced team of city-states set up to benefit Athens after the Persian War.
Peloponessian War. (4) Athens was becoming too powerful , angered Sparta after attacking their ally, Corinth, Spartan victory, started the gradual downfall of Greece.
Socrates. (6) First Greek philosopher to focus on ethical questions, truth-seeking regarding human nature, understandings, and relationships. arrested and convicted for poisoning the minds of the youth (shows the battle between religion and new ways of thinking).
Plato. (4) Socrates' student, wrote about Socrates, taught Aristotle, founded the academy.
Aristotle. (3) Plato's student, interested in natural and social sciences, taught Alexander the Great.
Diocletian. (Random change to Rome) (2) Divided the Roman Empire into the east and west because it was too large together, the west fell but the east stayed strong.
Government of Athens. (7) Experimented with governments but ended up with democracy, Solon- laws could be written and revised, Cleisthenes- first democrat, town meeting- free males vote, council of 500- random one year terms, slaves and women had no power.
Society of Athens. (3) Women were inferior, distinct social classes,valued education and being intellectual.
Government of Sparta. (1) Aristocracy.
Society in Sparta. (6) Helot rebellions led to a militaristic environment, helots- slaves that were once warriors of conquered Messina, self-disciplined, emphasized physical fitness, few luxuries to maintain equality, women were equal and ran businesses while men were fighting
Belief systems of Greece. (5) Polytheistic (Ex: Zeus, Poseidon, Athena), each polis had a patron, believed gods could not control humans, no strong priestly class, believed in philosophy.
Greek architecture. (4) Acropolisis- famous temple in Athens, inspired Roman architecture, columns (Ionic, Donic, Corinthean) , sculptures
Greek literature. (3) Lyric poetry (song-like poem that expresses emotions, studied by Aristotle), Iliad and the Odyssey.
Greek plays. (1) Drama (plays about gods and their interactions with humans),
Hellenistic world. (1) Spreading of Greek culture to areas Alexander the Great conquered due to immigration of the Greeks.
King Phillip. (3) Alexander the Great's father, King of Macedonia, conquered Greece.
Alexander the Great. (5) Conquered most of the land known to the Greeks in period two, Macedonian King, son to King Phillip, his empire fell after his death.
Greek science. (2) Inspired Roman science, studied by Aristotle.
Greek philosophy. (6) "Love of wisdom", interested in the physical world, believed in natural law, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.
Estruscans. (1) Established city-states in Rome.
Roman Republic. (gov, classes, achievements, downfall, time period) Definition: State without a monarch Government: Senate, two consuls (elected), tribunes (rep. plebeians) Social classes: Patricians, Plebeians Cultural achievements: democracy, law of twelve tables, aqueducts Downfall: Julius Caesar When: period 2
Senate. (3) Government of the Roman Republic, composed of Patricians (hereditary), had all of the power despite the democracy-like set up.
Dictator. (2) Style of government after the senate, one person rules all
Punic Wars. (3) Victory for Rome over Carthage, increased Rome's economic and political power, helped power further expansion.
Julius Caesar. (4) Challenged the senate's power, ruled the triumvirate, crowned himself dictator, murdered on the Ides of March.
Octavian (Augustus). (4) Defeated Mark Antony, nephew of Julius Caesar, declared the consul by senate, started Roman Empire.
Five good emperors. (2) Best emperors of Ancient Rome, during the golden age.
Pax romana. (5) "Roman peace", golden age, trade thrived, less expansion relaxed the empire, decline began afterwards in the 3rd century crisis.
Christianity. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: Jesus of Nazareth Where: Rome When: 2nd period Basic beliefs: Bible, Jesus is messiah, love and charity Universalizing or ethnic?: Universalizing Impact: Spread through Roman roads and disciples, failed attempt to hold Rome together
Roman Empire. (gov, classes, achievements, downfall, time period) Definition: Ruled by a dictator/consul for life Government: senate had little power Social classes: more distinct, slaves, Cultural achievements: roads, expansion, plays, architecture Downfall: inconsistent selection of emperor, defenseless
Judaism. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: Abraham Where: Israel When: periodization 1 Basic beliefs: Messiah has not yet come, Torah, 10 Commandments, covenant Universalizing or ethnic?: Ethnic Impact: Inspired Christianity and Islam, started monotheism, diaspora
Hinduism. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: no Where:India When: period 1 Basic beliefs: Dharma, karma, moksha, Atman, Rig Vedas, reincarnation, caste system, Brahman Universalizing or ethnic: Ethnic Impact: Aryans were above Dravidians, didn't impact many because it didn't spread
Buddhism . (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Siddhartha Gautama Ganges River Valley, India period 2 nirvana, Four Noble Truths, Eight Fold Path, Universalizing, theravada (strict Spread through silk road, was appealing to Indians because they didn't have to reincarnate to reach nirvana
Confucianism. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: Confucius Where: China When: periodization 2 (Han Wudi) Basic beliefs: 5 key relationships , filial piety, family and education, Li, Ren, Analects, civil service tests, Universalizing or ethnic?: Ethnic Impact: End warring states period
Daoism. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: Laozi Where: China When: periodization 2 Basic beliefs: Following the dao will end conflict, encouraged weak government, emphasized importance of nature Universalizing or ethnic?: Ethnic Impact:
Legalism.(founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact) Founder: Where: China When: periodization 2 (Qin Dynasty- Shi Huangdi) Basic beliefs: Humans are naturally evil and will only obey through force, strict laws, harsh punishments, sacrifice of personal freedom Universalizing or ethnic?: Impact:
Islam. (founder, where, when, beliefs, uni/ethnic, impact Founder: Muhammad Where: Mecca, Arabian Peninsula When: 3rd period Basic beliefs: Sunnis, shiites, people of the book, five pillars Universalizing or ethnic?: universalizing Impact: Expansion, golden age
Muhammad. (4) Founder of Islam, established religion in Mecca but fled to Medina to gain followers, ended polytheism in Mecca.
Bedouins. (3) Name for those who lived on the Arabian Peninsula, organized into tribes that fought for natural resources due to the dry climate.
Revelation. (1) When God sends a message to a future prophet.
Ka'aba. (2) Mecca's polytheistic shrine to all of its gods that brought visitors to Mecca.
Hegira. (1) Muhammad's trip to departure from Mecca to Medina.
Umma. (1) Islamic community
Five pillars of Islam. Fast during Ramadan, pray five times a day, charity, trip to Mecca, oath of faith to Allah and Muhammad.
Sharia. (1) Islam's laws based on the Koran and the Hadith.
Koran. (1) Holy book of Islam
People of the book. (2) Muslims' nickname for Christians and Jews, shows respect for their common theme of monotheism.
Conquested regions of Islam. (3) East- Afghanistan West- northern Africa and Spain, was stopped at France at the Battle of Tours with Charles Martel
Head tax of Islam. (2) Islam did not force conquered people to convert to their religion, however they made them pay a tax if they were not Muslim with hopes that their descendants would be loyal to Allah.
Umayyad caliphate. (5) Founded by Muawiya, supported by the Sunnis, moved capitol to Damascus, expansion- gained a lot of non-Arabs. fell to mawali (non-Arab) riots.
Abbasid caliphate. (11) After Umayyads, supported by the Shiites, opened the religion to non-Arabs- Islam became universalizing, became defenseless due to their large empire , built a strong bureaucracy, trade, golden age- math, science, medicine, architecture
Medieval period. (2) Western European history from 500 to 1500 CE, another term for medieval times or dark ages.
Dark Ages. (6) A time of trouble in Europe, few literate people, trade decreased, lack of political, social, and military order, Christianity was the only prospering order, feudalism and manoralism was popular.
Barbaric invaders. Groups of nomads such as the Germanic tribes and Franks invaded Rome and dismantled its entire political system.
Clovis. (4) King of Franks, converted to Christianity to gain support of the people, tried to unite all of western Europe but his sons lost the kingdom.
Charles Martel. (3) Stopped Muslim expansion into France with the Battle of Tours, as well as Clovis' army.
Charlemagne. (6) Grandson of Charles Martel of the Carolingian family, conquered most of western Europe and temporarily unified it, needed to defend Rome against the vikings, set up lords and missi domenici- balance, had to obtain his subjects' loyalty, conflict w/ pope
Feudalism. (2) The political form of having lords who ruled over vassals. Vassals swore loyalty and labor to the lords in return for safety.
Manorialism. (2) The economic form of having a lord provide food, shelter, and safety for vassals in return for loyalty, the manors were self sufficient and were in competition with other manors for vassals.
Social classes of feudalism. (4) 1. King 2. Lords/Nobles/Barons 3. Knights 4. Serfs/Peasants
Social classes of Roman Catholic Church. 1. Pope 2. Cardinal 3. Arch Bishop 4. Bishop 5. Priests/Nuns/Monks
Constantine. (Occurred way before the Dark Ages despite its placement in the flashcards) Passed the Edict of Milan, which allowed toleration towards Christians after God came to him in a dream where he won battles with a cross painted on his shield.
Chandra Gupta. (1) Founder of the Gupta Empire.
Ashoka. (2) Third ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty, popularized Buddhism in India by converting to it after seeing death and war.
Mauryan Dynasty. (4) A large, successful empire that helped expand and unify India.
Gupta Empire. (7) Not as large as the Mauryan Dynasty, Islamic golden age- medicine, literature, mathematics (surgery, medical classifications, Upanishads- book of Hindu gods, zero, square root), practiced theater state to amaze guests, did not build a large bureaucracy
Han Wudi. (4) Leader of the Han Dynasty, practiced Confucianism, reflected the value of education, ended Warring States Period, expanded China.
Shi Huangdi. (7) Followed legalism, leader of the Qin Dynasty, burned books, known as the "first emperor", unified China, standardized measurements and currencies, built the Great Wall.
Seven characteristics of a civilization. 1. Reliable surpluses 2. Specialized occupations 3. Distinct social classes 4. Growth of cities 5. Complex governments 6. Long distance trade 7. Organized writing systems
Chandragupta Maurya. (2) Founder of the Maurya Empire, united India under one dynasty.
Created by: emarciante9



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