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Meiosis, asexual and sexual reproduction

asexual reproduction an organism producing a genetically identical copy of itself, no mate
sexual reproduction an egg and a sperm combine from 2 parents to create a genetic variation of themselves, joining of gametes
budding, process the nucleus and cytoplasm grow and then divide into 2 cells of unequal size, the bud is an extension of the parent, the bud pinches off and becomes a new individual
regeneration, process organism can develop lost body parts or form a new individual from a fragment (starfish)
spores tiny cells used to create gametes
vegetative propagation parent plant uses runners to produce identical plants, new plant becomes an individual
binary fission, process circular chromosome duplicates and attaches to the cell membrane, a new membrane forms, b/c chromosomes are forced apart, membrane constricts and 2 cells are formed
haploid half of the normal amount of chromosomes, humans 23, one set of chromosomes
diploid normal amount of chromosomes, humans 46, two sets of homologous chromosomes
crossing over exchange of corresponding DNA segments between non sister chromatids, the homologous chromosomes trade equal amounts of DNA
chiasma site of tetrad attachment and site where chromosomes cross over
homologous chromosomes chromosomes with the same length, centromere position, and gene location, sister chromatids from each parent, chromosomes that have the same information
locus the position of a gene
gamete sperm and egg cells, reproductive cells, cells with a haploid number of chromosomes
somatic cell cells with 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes, every other cell besides a gamete
zygote diploid cell, 23 chromosomes from each parent, cell that forms from an egg and sperm combination, 1st cell of a living organism
polar body small egg cell that is not taken care of and dies
nondisjunction failure of chromosomes of chromatids to separate normally during meiosis
Created by: opal.eddy