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SOL History Review
|Two main reasons why Europeans came to the New World?
|religious freedom and economic opportunity
|Who founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
|What was the basic unit of settlement in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
|What is the historical significance of the Puritan town meetings?
|practiced direct democracy
|Define the term indentured servant.
|a person who agreed to work for someone else for a period of time (5 to 7 years) in exchange for payment of their passage to America
|"What was the first permanent English settlement in North America and when was it settled?"
|How did European colonization affect the American Indians?
|violent conflicts between Europeans and Indians; Indians lost their land and died from European diseases
|Define the term Middle Passage.
|Middle Passage = passage across the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa to the Americas that was the route of the African-American slave trade
|What was the Great Awakening?
|a religious movement in the colonies around 1740 that emphasized emotional spirituality
|How did the Great Awakening relate to the American Revolution?
|it challenged the established religious and governmental order
|What was the Proclamation of 1763?
|prohibited the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
|Why did Parliament pass taxes on the American colonists after the French and Indian War?
|A. British government was deep in debt from the war with France B. To help pay for the cost of British troops stationed in North America
|What was the Stamp Act?
|a tax on all legal papers issued in the American colonies
|What became a popular slogan among Americans during the mid-1760s?
|No taxation without representation
|What were the Townshend Acts?
|laws that placed tariffs on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
|What was the First Continental Congress?
|a meeting of representatives from all the thirteen colonies except Georgia to discuss opposition to British policies
|Where and when did the Revolutionary War begin?
|Lexington and Concord in April 1775
|Who wrote the final draft of the Declaration of Independence?
|Who was John Locke and what did he argue concerning government?
|a 17th century English philosopher; any government that failed to protect the life
|Sum up Jefferson main ideas in the Declaration of Independence?
|A. All men are created equal B.all men have God given rights: life,liberty, pursuit of happiness C. Government exist to guarantee these God given rights D. When government fails to guarantee these rights, then it the right of people to overthrow
|What was the first attempt at workable government in the United States?
|the Articles of Confederation
|For what two reasons had Americans fought the Revolutionary War?
|A. Escape unfair taxation by Parliament B. Escape the King George IIIs tyranny
|Why was it a problem that the Articles of Confederation provided for no common currency?
|difficult to develop a national economy without any national money, also no money to run the government
|How did the Articles of Confederation create a problem when they gave each state one vote in Congress?
|States with large populations believed this system was unfair
|What three issues divided the delegates to the Constitutional Convention?
|A. Large states vs. Small statesB. How should national government and states divide powerC. Slavery
|What three things did the Constitution of the United States do?
|A. Established a govt. that shared power between the national government and state govts. B. Protected the rights of statesC. Provided a way to amend or change the Constitution
|What two Virginians played important roles at the Constitutional Convention?
|George Washington and James Madison
|Who wrote the Virginia Plan? and what did it do?
|James Madison, Proposed a federal government of three separate branches: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial
|What does it mean to say that federal law is the supreme law of the land?
|when state law conflicts with federal law, the federal law remains supreme
|How else did the Constitutional Convention try to restrain or check the federal governments power?
|by limiting the federal govt. to those powers specifically identified in the Constitution
|How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could take effect?
|What two documents did Madison consult when he worked on the Bill of Rights?
|Virginia Declaration of Rights and Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
|What was the main idea of the Virginia Declaration of Rights?
|set forth the idea that govts. should not violate basic human rights
|Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom?
|What rights are guaranteed by the First Amendment?
|freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom of petition, and freedom of assembly
|What institutions developed after George Washington presidency ended in the late 1790s?
|Who led the Federalist Party?
|Alexander Hamilton; John Adams
|Who led the Democratic-Republicans?
|Thomas Jefferson; James Madison
|What were the beliefs of the Democratic-Republicans?
|1) weak national govt. 2) development of an agricultural economy (farming)
|Who did the American people elect as president of the United States in 1800?
|How did the Louisiana Territory affect the size of the United States?
|doubled the size of the United States
|Who did Jefferson send to explore the new territories west of the Mississippi River?Who served as guide?
|Lewis and Clark,Sacajawea; American Indian
|On what country did the United States declare war in 1812?
|Great Britain, War of 1812
|What territory did the United States acquire in 1819 and from what country did the United States obtain it?
|What was the result of the important rulings issued by the Supreme Court during the first three decades of the nineteenth century?
|established the power of the federal courts as a co-equal branch of the United States govt.
|How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Marbury v. Madison?
|declared a federal law unconstitutional
|Why is the power of judicial review important?
|provides the Supreme Court with its main check on the power of the legislative branch
|How did the Marshall court rule in McCulloch v. Maryland?
|prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government
|When and what were important parts of the Monroe Doctrine?
|1823 1) No European colonies in the Western Hemisphere (Europe should stay out of affairs of Western Hemisphere)2) Countries in Western Hemisphere were basically different from European countries; countries in North and South America were republics
|When was the cotton gin invented and who invented it?
|1793; Eli Whitney
|What were the dates of the Mexican War and what countries were involved?
|(1846-1848); United States and Mexico
|Who were the abolitionists?
|people who wanted to end slavery immediately
|Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe?
|author of Uncle Toms Cabin
|What effect did Uncle Toms Cabin have on the antislavery movement?
|inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment and attracted many Northerners to the antislavery cause
|What two slave rebellions occurred in Virginia?
|Gabriels Prosser Rebellion and Nat Turners Rebellion
|What were the three provisions of the Missouri Compromise?
|1) Missouri admitted as a slave state 2) Maine admitted as a free state 3) Louisiana Territory was divided at 36,30 parallel; north of this line must be free; south of this line could be slave
|Why was it important to Congress to keep the number of slave and free states equal?
|to keep the United States Senate evenly divided between the free North and the slave South
|What important event happened in California in 1849?
|Who has been called the Great Compromiser and why was he called that?
|Henry Clay; proposed both the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
|Who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska bill?
|What were the three provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
|1) Created new territories, Kansas and Nebraska 2) Popular sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery in both 3)call it the Kansas-Nebraska Act
|What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on Kansas?
|caused bloody fighting between pro-slavery and antislavery forces,Bleeding Kansas
|How did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case?
|The Supreme Court ruled against the Scott's 7 to 3. Chief Justice Taney stated that as an African American Dred Scott was an inferior and without rights. Thus he was not a citizen and could not sue anyone. As an enslaved person he was property.
|"What did Lincoln mean when he said A house divided against itself cannot stand?
|the United States could not continue half-slave and half-free; the problem of slavery must be solved
|Why did southern states refuse to accept Lincolns election as president?
|they feared he would abolish slavery or at least further restrict it
|Who was elected president of the Confederate States of America?
|Why did the Battle of Antietam mark a new stage in the Civil War?
|because after Antietam, The emancipation proclamation was issued
|What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
|freed slaves in those Southern states still rebelling against the U.S. on 1 January 1863
|In the Gettysburg Address what dual purpose did Lincoln believe the Civil War was fulfilling?
|preserve the Union and abolish slavery
|Who spoke the words With malice towards none?
|What two ideas did the Radical Republicans want included in the federal governments Reconstruction policy?
|1) Military occupation of the South2) Civil rights for African-Americans
|What action did the Radical Republicans take after President Andrew Johnson tried to prevent their program on behalf of freedmen?
|they tried to impeach him but failed
|Identify the Thirteenth Amendment.
|freed the slaves
|Identify the Fourteenth Amendment.
|gave citizenship to African-Americans; guaranteed equal protection of the laws
|Identify the Fifteenth Amendment.
|gave African-American males the right to vote
|What deal was made between Southern Democrats and Republicans to end Reconstruction?
|Southern Democrats support the Republican candidate for president and Republicans would end military occupation of the South
|What are two advantages of a corporation?
|1) ability to raise large amounts of money2) limited liability
|What does it mean for a corporation to have limited liability?
|the corporation itself rather than the individual stockholders, is responsible for the business actions
|Why was the development of the Bessemer steel process important?
|made possible the large-scale production of steel
|Who developed the laissez faire theory
|Adam Smith; The Wealth of Nations
|Define laissez faire
|the theory that govt. should leave business alone; it should neither help nor hinder business
|How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson?
|Plessy v. Ferguson = Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment
|Explain W.E.B. DuBois position on racial segregation in the South and racial discrimination in the North.
|W.E.B. DuBois wanted immediate political equality for African-Americans
|When was the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People formed and what was its purpose?"
|NAACP; 1909; gain legal rights for African-Americans
|What were the results of the development of social problems in rural and urban America during the late nineteenth century?
|led to the Progressive movement
|What social problems did industrialization create in American cities during the late nineteenth century?
|1) dangerous working conditions2) use and abuse of child labor and women workers
|Describe the early history of the American Federation of Labor.
|grew slowly and at first lost most of its struggles with big business
|What happened at the Homestead Strike?
|Homestead Strike = a bloody and unsuccessful strike by the AF of L at the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892
|What was the Pullman Strike?
|Pullman Strike = an 1894 strike by railroad employees against the Pullman Company
|What was the International Ladies Garment Workers Union?
|an early attempt to organize women who worked in textile factories
|What was the Progressive Movement?
|Progressive Movement = a movement beginning about 1900 that aimed at solving political, economic, and social problems
|What were three achievements of the Progressive Movement on the national level?
|1) 17th Amendment2) Sherman Anti-Trust Act3) Clayton Anti-Trust Act
|a process that permits citizens to propose laws to their state or local governments
|What reform did Progressives use to protect voters privacy?
|the secret ballot
|What was the Seventeenth Amendment?
|17th Amendment = provided for direct election of U.S. senators rather than election by the state legislatures
|Define the term trust.
|trust = a group of corporations whose stock was controlled by a central board of directors
|Who was president when Congress passed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act and what two things did the Clayton Anti-Trust Act do?
|Woodrow Wilson; 1) outlawed price-fixing by competing corporations2) exempted unions from the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (in other words, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not be used against unions)
|Name one leader of the womens suffrage movement?
|Susan B. Anthony
|For what modern movements was the womens suffrage movement a forerunner?
|many modern protest movements
|What two new technologies opened up Western lands for settlement and made farming in the region more profitable?
|railroads and mechanical reapers
|For what did farmers use the mechanical reaper?
|Give four examples of how immigrants made valuable contributions to the dramatic industrial growth of America during the late 1800s?
|1) Built the transcontinental railroad2) worked in textile and steel mills in the Northeast3) worked in the clothing industry in New York City4) mined coal in the mid-Appalachian Mountains
|What problems did the rapid growth of American cities cause?
|"1) housing shortages; 2) the need for public services like sewage and water systems; 3) the need for public transportation
|What types of mass transportation did other American cities use at the turn of the twentieth century?
|trolley and streetcar lines
|Explain historians melting pot thesis.
|melting pot thesis = Immigrants have come from all parts of the world.These have all brought their native cultures with them. These cultures have melted together to form a new American culture.
|What does the acronym WASP mean?
|White Anglo-Saxon (British) Protestant
|"What two lawspassed by Congress during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries attempted to limit immigration?
|Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
|What did American businessmen believe would be gained from international trade?
|1) make huge profits2) bring economic prosperity through international trade
|Why have some historians called the late nineteenth century the age of American imperialism?
|the U.S. gained control of Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands
|Who were the president and secretary of state when the United States proposed the Open Door Policy?
|William McKinley (President) and John Hay (Secretary of State)
|What was the McKinley administrations goal when it announced the Open Door Policy?
|open up the Chinese market to American businessmen; previously U.S. had been excluded (kept out)
|What president was responsible for Dollar Diplomacy?
|William Howard Taft
|What were the two parts of Dollar Diplomacy?
|" Dollar Diplomacy: 1) encourage American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America 2) promise that the U.S. military would intervene if our interests were threatened"
|In what type of imperialism was the United States engaging through both the Open Door Policy and Dollar Diplomacy?
|What territory did the United States annex (add) at the end of the Spanish-American War?
|Philippines and Puerto Rico
|What position did the United States take with regard to Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War?
|said U.S. had right to intervene in Cuban affairs
|When did the United States truly start pursuing an internationalist foreign policy?
|when it entered World War I in 1917
|Why did the United States eventually enter World War I on the side of the Allies?
|Reasons for joining the Allies:1) German submarine warfare against American merchant shipping2) American cultural and historical ties to Great Britain
|What was the result of Americas entrance into World War I?
|Germany was defeated in 1918
|Identify the League of Nations.
|League of Nations = an organization of nations established at the end of World War I to maintain world stability and peace
|What were the five major principles of the Treaty of Versailles?
|5 principles of Treaty of Versailles 1) national self-determination 2) freedom of the seas 3) League of Nations 4) the mandate system 5) Germany was responsible for World War I; had to pay reparations (war damages)
|"Under the Treaty of Versailles what was a mandate?"
|a mandate = a region administered by another country until it was judged ready for independence
|What happened to the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the Versailles Treaty?
|Ottoman Empire was divided into mandates
|How did France and Great Britain benefit from the division of the Ottoman Empire?
|1) France got Syria as a mandate2) Great Britain got Palestine and Iraq as mandates
|What new European nations did the Versailles Treaty create?
|Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland
|What size vote is necessary for the Senate to ratify a treaty with a foreign country?
|What were three major causes of the Great Depression?
|1) Stock market crash2) Collapse of nations banking system3) High protective tariffs
|What happened to stock prices on the New York Stock Exchange between 1920 and 1929?
|What does it mean to buy stock on margin?
|Buy stock on credit
|"What did many investors do when the stock market dropped
|Sold their stock; stock prices dropped even further
|What functions as the central bank of the United States?
|The Federal Reserve System
|Explain how a Federal Reserve Bank works?
|If a bank needs to borrow money
|Who appoints the members of the Federal Reserve Board?
|What are two functions of the Federal Reserve Board?
|1) oversees the actions of the Federal Reserve Banks2) sets the interest rate which banks must pay to borrow money from the Federal Reserve
|Why is the Federal Reserve Boards power to set interest rates important?
|enables the Federal Reserve to control the nations money supply
|Under what circumstances might the Federal Reserve Board raise interest rates?
|if the Federal Reserve believes the American economy is overheating and thereby causing inflation
|inflation = when prices increase and the dollar buys less when prices increase and the value of the dollar decreases
|Was the Federal Reserve Board able to prevent the 1929 stock market crash from triggering the Great Depression?
|Why did many banks fail when the stock market crashed?
|1) banks had invested savings deposits in the stock market2) banks had loaned money to stock speculators who were buying stock on margin
|How did bank failures after the stock market crash affect Americans confidence in the nations banking system?
|Americans lost confidence
|"After the 1929 stock market crash how did Congress try to help American business?"
|passed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (the Tariff Act of 1930)
|Identify the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (Tariff Act of 1930).
|a protective tariff that set the highest tariff rates in American history
|Congress intended the Hawley-Smoot Tariff to help business. Why do most historians believe it actually hurt business?
|encouraged foreign countries to retaliate (to return like for like; do unto others, as they do unto you) by passing high tariffs of their own"
|How did the erection of trade barriers by all of the worlds major industrial powers affect world trade?
|strangled world trade
|What four-pronged effect did the Great Depression have on the United States?
|1) unemployment increased 2) banks closed 3) political unrest 4) farm foreclosures
|Whom did most Americans blame for the Great Depression?
|President Herbert Hoover
|"Who ran for president in 1932 what was each candidates political party
|Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)Herbert Hoover (Republican)Roosevelt won
|Who told the American people in 1933 that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself?
|Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
|What was the New Deals three-pronged strategy, what were the 3 r's
|relief, recovery, and reform
|Identify the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
|"Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation = protects the money of depositors in insured banks; today FDIC insures deposits up to $100,000
|Identify the Social Security Act.
|offered safeguards for workers, including unemployment insurance and retirement benefits
|What did Americans come to believe was a purpose of the federal government?
|"to provide care for those Americans who through no fault of their own could not take care of themselves"
|What three basic rights did organized labor acquire or gain during the New Deal?
|"1) right to form a union 2) right to strike, 3) minimum wage"
|What organization did the Allies found in 1945 near the end of World War II?
|Contrast the American belief regarding the United States role in the world after World War I with that after World War II.
|After World War II, Americans believed the U.S. had an important role to play in world affairs, while after World War I Americans retreated into isolationism (refused to join the League of Nations).
|Socialism = an economic system in which the govt. owns and controls the means of production; for example under socialism, the govt. owns power plants, transportation and communication companies, mines, and steel mills
|"containment = the post-World War II American foreign policy that tried to check the expansion of the Soviet Union and communism through diplomatic economic, and military means
|What was the dual purpose of the Marshall Plan?
|1) rebuild European economies2) prevent the spread of communism
|Who was Chiang Kai-shek?
|Chiang Kai-shek = leader of the anti-communist Chinese
|Where did Mao force Chiang to flee?
|the island of Formosa off the coast of China
|What government did Chiang set up after he fled to Formosa?
|Why did many Americans fear that communist spies held important positions in the federal government?
|the trials of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs
|Identify Alger Hiss.
|"Alger Hiss: federal govt. official who was accused of passing secret documents to the Soviets in the late 1930s; although Hiss claimed he was innocent he was convicted of perjury; many Americans believed Hiss was guilty of treason.
|Identify Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
|"Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: Americans who had worked on the United States atomic project; were arrested for passing atomic secrets to the Soviets convicted of espionage, and executed
|McCarthyism = unfairly accusing others of disloyalty and subversion (threatening to overthrow the government)
|What event in 1950 was a major test for Americas containment policy?
|the Korean War: when communist North Korea invaded non-communist south Korea
|What country entered the Korean War after the American military forces counterattacked and drove deep into North Korea?
|What did President Eisenhower adopt as a part of containment?
|Identify massive retaliation.
|"massive retaliation=the Eisenhower administrations threat of swiftall-out military actions against a nation committing aggression (attack)"
|What promise did American presidents refuse to make to the Soviet Union during the Cold War?
|not to make a first strike nuclear attack
|To what place did many Cubans flee in order to escape communist rule?
|Who became president of the United States in 1961?
|John F. Kennedy
|What happened during the Bay of Pigs invasion?
|it was a complete disaster; the popular uprising against Castro never happened; Castros army had captured or killed most of the American-supported invaders
|How did President Kennedy learn that the Soviet Union had placed missiles in Cuba?
|American spy-plane photographs
|What action did President Kennedy take to end the Cuban Missile Crisis?
|naval blockade of Cuba; threatened to take further steps if the Soviets didnt remove their missiles
|With what type of war was the world threatened during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
|Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
|How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson?
|that separate but equal facilities did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment
|When and by whom was the NAACP formed?
|by an interracial group of reformers in 1909
|Who was one of the early leaders of the NAACP?
|On what basis did the NAACP attack Jim Crow laws before World War II?
|"Before the end of World War II the NAACP attacked the equality issue of the separate but equal doctrine. The NAACP argued that the Southern states were violating the Plessy decision, because the separate facilities were not equal.
|Who served as chief counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund?
|Identify Oliver Hill.
|chief counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense Team in Virginia
|On what desegregation case did Oliver Hill work?
|the Prince Edward County school desegregation case
|"To what other desegregation case did the Brown decision apply besides the one from Topeka Kansas?"
|the Prince Edward County, Virginia school desegregation case"
|"Who was Senator Harry F. Byrd
|the leader of the small group of Democrats who controlled Virginias politics
|"After the Supreme Court handed down the Brown decision what policy did Virginias governor and state legislature adopt under Senator Byrds leadership?"
|What were Virginias Massive Resistance laws? What did the Massive Resistance laws instruct Virginias governor to do as a last resort?
|"state laws that made it illegal for Virginia public schools to desegregate even when they were under federal court order to do so
|What two things happened when Virginias Massive Resistance movement reached a climax in 1959?
|"1) Virginias governor closed several public schoolsrather than obey federal court orders to integrate them. 2) Upper and middle class whites started private academies so that they could avoid sending their children to integrated public schools"
|What did the Brown decision show the Supreme Court could do when it interpreted its powers broadly?
|reshape American society
|What two actions did African-Americans take during the 1950s and 1960s to reshape American public opinion and secure the passage of federal civil rights legislation?
|1) worked through the federal court system (filed racial discrimination cases in federal court) 2) used mass protest (non-violent resistance)
|What precedent did the Supreme Court use to make its decision in the Montgomery bus segregation case?
|the Brown decision
|What was the purpose of the 1963 March on Washington?
|to lobby Congress for passage of major civil rights laws
|"Who made the most famous speech at the 1963 March on Washington and what was the most famous line of this speech?"
|Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; I have a dream."
|For what two reasons was the 1963 March on Washington important?
|"1) Helped influence public opinion to support major civil rights legislation2) Showed the power of non-violent, mass protest
|What were the two parts of the 1965 Voting Right Act?
|1965 Voting Rights Act: 1) outlawed literacy tests as a requirement for voter registration 2) sent federal registrars to the South to register voters
|What was the result of the 1965 Voting Rights Act?
|a large increase in the number of African-American voters throughout the South
|Who was assassinated in 1968?
|"Dr. Martin Luther King
|What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do?
|outlawed racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
|What made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election between 1948 and 1992?
|the Cold War
|What Cold War policy resulted in American involvement in Vietnam?
|Who was the leader of the Vietnamese independence movement?
|Ho Chi Minh
|What type of government did Ho Chi Minh want an independent Vietnam to have?
|What action did France take after its army was defeated by Ho Chi Minhs forces?
|France withdrew from Indochina
|Who were the Vietcong?
|South Vietnamese communists who wanted to reunify all of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh; southern revolutionaries who formed the National Liberation Front
|What was the National Liberation Front?
|the official name of the Vietcong
|What action did the Eisenhower administration take to counter North Vietnams efforts to take over South Vietnam?
|sent large amounts of economic and military aid to South Vietnam
|Under what president did the American military buildup in Vietnam begin?
|John F. Kennedy
|Who succeeded John F. Kennedy as president?
|Lyndon B. Johnson
|What action did President Johnson take in Vietnam in 1965?
|escalated or increased the American military buildup in Vietnam
|How many American troops were stationed in Vietnam by 1968?
|"more than 500,000
|What did it mean for the United States to fight a limited war in Vietnam?
|limited war = avoid any military action which might widen the war to include the Soviet Union or communist China
|What was the position of the American people on the Vietnam War by 1968?
|"divided: many Americans supported the war and many opposed it also
|What was the center of active opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War?
|Who won the 1968 presidential election?
|Vietnamization = the Nixon administrations policy of building up South Vietnamese forces while gradually withdrawing American troops
|Did Vietnamization succeed or fail?
|What political scandal caused President Nixon to resign as president in 1974?
|Watergate scandal = the public exposure of a burglary and its cover-up by the Nixon administration
|Who succeeded Richard Nixon as president?
|Gerald Ford after Richard Nixon was forced to resign as president
|What happened in Vietnam during Gerald Fords presidency?
|"North Vietnamese troops overran South Vietnam
|What did many Vietnam veterans face in the United States when they returned home?
|indifference or outright hostility
|Who served as President Richard Nixons secretary of state in 1972?
|By 1972 what did President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger realize regarding the relationship between the Soviet Union and China?
|"instead of being strong allies China and the Soviet Union had become rivals for power
|"During the early seventies what policy did Nixon and Kissinger initiate (start) towards the Soviet Union and China?"
|by talking with both the Soviet Union and China, the U.S. hoped to play the two communist countries off against each other
|What did the United States begin to establish with communist China in 1972?
|formal diplomatic relations
|With what Chinese leader did President Nixon meet in 1972?
|What was the Soviet Unions capital?
|Out of what talks did this treaty grow?
|the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
|Define the SALT talks.
|SALT talks = the Soviet-American discussions (1969) to establish limits on the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by both sides
|"Why was the SALT treaty so important in spite of its many loopholes?"
|the SALT Treaty was the first step toward ending the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union
|What caused the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War?
|both internal and external pressures in the 1980s
|Who became president in 1981and to which political party did the new president belong?
|Ronald Reagan ; Republican
|What did President Reagan try to assert throughout the world during his first term?
|How did Reagans new policy affect the United States relationship with the Soviet Union?
|tension with the Soviet Union increased
|Under what conditions would President Reagan consider reductions in nuclear arms?
|when Reagan was convinced that the United States was at least equal to the Soviet Union in military power
|What action did President Reagan take in Western Europe during his first term?
|placed new nuclear missiles in Western Europe
|How did the renewal of the arms race affect the Soviet Union?
|forced the Soviet Union to increase its military budget in order to compete with the United States
|Why was the need to increase military spending a serious problem for the Soviet leadership?
|because the Soviet economy was very inefficient
|Who became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985?
|Define the term Glasnost.
|Glasnost = Gorbachevs policy of encouraging freedom of expression in the Soviet Union
|What did the Russian word perestroika mean?
|perestroika = restructuring of Soviet society
|"Under perestroika what types of economic and political changes did Gorbachev want to occur in Soviet society?"
|1) less government control of the economy2) some private enterprise3) steps toward establishing democracy
|Among what group did Gorbachevs new policies raise high expectations?
|among millions of well-educated Russians
|What other movement did the Gorbachev government face during the late eighties?
|rising nationalism within the Soviet republics
|To what in the United States were the Soviet republics equivalent?
|Soviet republics = American states
|What feeling were the eastern European communist nations experiencing during the late eighties?
|rising feeling of nationalism
|What nations became satellites of the Soviet Union after World War II?
|nations of Eastern Europe
|List the Russian satellites.
|Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania
|"What western leader added pressure on the Soviet Union by traveling to the Berlin Wall and saying Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall?
|After Germanys reunification, what quickly happened in the Soviet Unions other Eastern European satellites?
|Germany was formally reunified under the democratic leadership of West Germany.
|"After Germanys reunification what quickly happened in the Soviet Unions other Eastern European satellites?"
|Communist governments fell from power.
|What action did the three Baltic republics take in 1991?
|declared their independence from the Soviet Union
|What precedent did the three Baltic republics set by this action?
|set precedent for other Soviet republics to declare their independence
|By the end of 1991 what did Gorbachev agree to do?
|"dismantle (take apart) the entire Communist system including the Soviet Communist Party
|"What action did Gorbachev take on Christmas Day 1991?"
|resigned and declared the Soviet Union had ended
|What have historians often called the period in American history from 1824 to 1850?
|the Age of Jackson
|What did the Age of Jackson witness?
|a new democratic spirit in American politics
|"Before the 1828 election with whom had the majority of the American people been satisfied with selecting their president?"
|During the Jacksonian period what action did many of the older states take regarding voter qualifications?"
|either lowered or eliminated property qualifications
|What new method of choosing presidential candidates was first used during the 1828 election?
|national nominating conventions
|To what political party did Andrew Jackson belong?
|What did President Jackson use to reward his political supporters?
|the spoils system
|What was the major criticism of the spoils system?
|it failed to put the most qualified people in government jobs
|Why did Jackson distrust the Bank of the United States?
|because Jackson believed the BUS was an undemocratic tool of the Eastern elite
|How did President Jacksons veto of the bank recharter bill differ from all previous presidential vetoes?
|it was not based solely on constitutional grounds
|What right did Jackson claim for the president in his message vetoing recharter of the Second BUS?
|a President had the right to veto bills for any reason he wanted
|"Who ran against President Jackson in the 1832 election and what was this candidates political party?"
|Henry Clay; National Republican
|To what did the National Republican Party change its name?
|the Whig Party
|What did Jackson make as a major goal of his second term as president?
|to destroy the power of the BUS
|How did Jacksons reelection affect the BUS?
|brought an end to the Second Bank of the United States
|What was the Panic of 1837?
|Panic of 1837 = an economic situation that resulted from reckless land speculation
|What group of Americans was particularly hurt by the reforms of Jacksonian democracy?
|What president proposed the Indian Removal Act in 1830?
|What was the Trail of Tears?
|the forced journey of Cherokee Indians from their homes in Georgia to a new Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma
|What happened to nearly one-fourth of the Cherokees on the Trail of Tears?
|"died of hardship,sickness, and starvation"
|What right for women did the Seneca Falls Declaration support?
|womens suffrage or the right to vote
|What was the United States policy when World War II began?
|Its policy was to remain neutral although FDR slanted that policy to the favor of Great Britain
|What were the major events of the war in Europe before the United States entered?
|"France was overrun. Britain was attacked by air during the Battle of Britain. Germany also invaded his former partner
|What militaristic actions did the Japanese take during the 1930's?
|The Japanese conquered Manchuria and invaded China.
|What was the response of the United States to these actions?
|Exports of oil and steel to the Japanese were embargoed by the United States.
|"What did FDR call December 7, 1941?
|FDR said it was a day 'which will live in infamy' as he asked for a declaration of war from Congress a few days after Pearl Harbor.
|What did Hitler do after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
|He declared war on the United States.
|What was the Axis strategy?
|The Germans wanted to take control of oil and other resources of the Soviet Union. They also wanted to force the British out of the war before America could come with her industrial power.
|What happened in the Pacific theater following Pearl Harbor?
|The Japanese conquered the American possession of the Philippines along with the British colony of Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. They also planned to invade Hawaii and Australia
|What was the Japanese strategy?
|Hope that the United Stated would not contest the territories that the Japanese conquered.
|What battles were the major turning points in the European theater?
|1) El Alamein: the British 8th Army defeated the advance of the German Africa Korps in Egypt.2) Stalingrad: The German 6th Army was defeated in Stalingrad and forced back by the Russians.3) Normandy: The Allies invaded the coast of France
|How did minority participation in World War II reflect social conditions in the United States?
|African-Americans generally served in segregated military units. They demanded the right to serve in combat roles.
|How did minorities complete to Allied victory?
|1) The Tuskegee airmen, African-American members of the US army air corps, served in the European theater with distinction2) Nisei regiments: These units made up mostly of Japanese Americans earned a large number of decorations in the European theater.
|What was the purpose of the Geneva convention?
|Its purpose was to ensure the fair treatment of all prisoners of war.
|How did the treatment of prisoners of war differ?
|"In the Pacific theater US soldiers captured in the Philippines were horribly mistreated. Japanese soldiers in most cases also chose not to surrender and committed suicide instead. "
|Did this treatment differ in the European theater?
|"For Americans that were captured by the Germans the Geneva convention was generally followed.
|Define 'Final Solution'?
|Germany's decision to exterminate all European Jews.
|What were the Nuremberg trials?
|Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes.
|What was the importance of the Nuremberg Trials?
|1) The trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during war regardless of orders. 2) The trials also led to increased demands for a Jewish homeland.
|How did the United States organize its resources to achieve victory during World War II?
|Economic resources: Rationing was used to make sure that the military had resources. War bonds and taxes were used to finance the war. Business was retooled to wartime production. Human resources: Women and minorities entered the labor force
|How did women and minorities contribute to America's effort during World War II?
|Women: They joined the workforce replacing the men. (Rosie the Riveter). Many also participated in non combat military roles. African-Americans: They migrated north to work in war plants. African-Americans also campaigned for victory in war and equa
|"How were Americans of Japanese descent treated after US entry in World War II
|Japanese Americans were relocated to internment camps. Some reasons for the relocation include strong anti-Japanese prejudice on the west coast of the United States and the false belief that they were aiding Japan
|Did the United States government eventually apologize for this action?
|Yes. They also provided financial restitution to the internees that were still alive.
|How did media and communications assist the Allied efforts during World War II?
|"1) The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war.2) Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort.3) The entertainment industry produced moviesplays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support