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SOL History Review

Two main reasons why Europeans came to the New World? religious freedom and economic opportunity
Who founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony? the Puritans
What was the basic unit of settlement in the Massachusetts Bay Colony? the town
What is the historical significance of the Puritan town meetings? practiced direct democracy
Define the term indentured servant. a person who agreed to work for someone else for a period of time (5 to 7 years) in exchange for payment of their passage to America
"What was the first permanent English settlement in North America and when was it settled?" Jamestown ,1607
How did European colonization affect the American Indians? violent conflicts between Europeans and Indians; Indians lost their land and died from European diseases
Define the term Middle Passage. Middle Passage = passage across the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa to the Americas that was the route of the African-American slave trade
What was the Great Awakening? a religious movement in the colonies around 1740 that emphasized emotional spirituality
How did the Great Awakening relate to the American Revolution? it challenged the established religious and governmental order
What was the Proclamation of 1763? prohibited the colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Why did Parliament pass taxes on the American colonists after the French and Indian War? A. British government was deep in debt from the war with France B. To help pay for the cost of British troops stationed in North America
What was the Stamp Act? a tax on all legal papers issued in the American colonies
What became a popular slogan among Americans during the mid-1760s? No taxation without representation
What were the Townshend Acts? laws that placed tariffs on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
What was the First Continental Congress? a meeting of representatives from all the thirteen colonies except Georgia to discuss opposition to British policies
Where and when did the Revolutionary War begin? Lexington and Concord in April 1775
Who wrote the final draft of the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
Who was John Locke and what did he argue concerning government? a 17th century English philosopher; any government that failed to protect the life
Sum up Jefferson main ideas in the Declaration of Independence? A. All men are created equal B.all men have God given rights: life,liberty, pursuit of happiness C. Government exist to guarantee these God given rights D. When government fails to guarantee these rights, then it the right of people to overthrow
What was the first attempt at workable government in the United States? the Articles of Confederation
For what two reasons had Americans fought the Revolutionary War? A. Escape unfair taxation by Parliament B. Escape the King George IIIs tyranny
Why was it a problem that the Articles of Confederation provided for no common currency? difficult to develop a national economy without any national money, also no money to run the government
How did the Articles of Confederation create a problem when they gave each state one vote in Congress? States with large populations believed this system was unfair
What three issues divided the delegates to the Constitutional Convention? A. Large states vs. Small statesB. How should national government and states divide powerC. Slavery
What three things did the Constitution of the United States do? A. Established a govt. that shared power between the national government and state govts. B. Protected the rights of statesC. Provided a way to amend or change the Constitution
What two Virginians played important roles at the Constitutional Convention? George Washington and James Madison
Who wrote the Virginia Plan? and what did it do? James Madison, Proposed a federal government of three separate branches: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial
What does it mean to say that federal law is the supreme law of the land? when state law conflicts with federal law, the federal law remains supreme
How else did the Constitutional Convention try to restrain or check the federal governments power? by limiting the federal govt. to those powers specifically identified in the Constitution
How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could take effect? 9
What two documents did Madison consult when he worked on the Bill of Rights? Virginia Declaration of Rights and Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
What was the main idea of the Virginia Declaration of Rights? set forth the idea that govts. should not violate basic human rights
Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom? Thomas Jefferson
What rights are guaranteed by the First Amendment? freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom of petition, and freedom of assembly
What institutions developed after George Washington presidency ended in the late 1790s? political parties
Who led the Federalist Party? Alexander Hamilton; John Adams
Who led the Democratic-Republicans? Thomas Jefferson; James Madison
What were the beliefs of the Democratic-Republicans? 1) weak national govt. 2) development of an agricultural economy (farming)
Who did the American people elect as president of the United States in 1800? Thomas Jefferson
How did the Louisiana Territory affect the size of the United States? doubled the size of the United States
Who did Jefferson send to explore the new territories west of the Mississippi River?Who served as guide? Lewis and Clark,Sacajawea; American Indian
On what country did the United States declare war in 1812? Great Britain, War of 1812
What territory did the United States acquire in 1819 and from what country did the United States obtain it? Florida; Spain
What was the result of the important rulings issued by the Supreme Court during the first three decades of the nineteenth century? established the power of the federal courts as a co-equal branch of the United States govt.
How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Marbury v. Madison? declared a federal law unconstitutional
Why is the power of judicial review important? provides the Supreme Court with its main check on the power of the legislative branch
How did the Marshall court rule in McCulloch v. Maryland? prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government
When and what were important parts of the Monroe Doctrine? 1823 1) No European colonies in the Western Hemisphere (Europe should stay out of affairs of Western Hemisphere)2) Countries in Western Hemisphere were basically different from European countries; countries in North and South America were republics
When was the cotton gin invented and who invented it? 1793; Eli Whitney
What were the dates of the Mexican War and what countries were involved? (1846-1848); United States and Mexico
Who were the abolitionists? people who wanted to end slavery immediately
Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe? author of Uncle Toms Cabin
What effect did Uncle Toms Cabin have on the antislavery movement? inflamed Northern abolitionist sentiment and attracted many Northerners to the antislavery cause
What two slave rebellions occurred in Virginia? Gabriels Prosser Rebellion and Nat Turners Rebellion
What were the three provisions of the Missouri Compromise? 1) Missouri admitted as a slave state 2) Maine admitted as a free state 3) Louisiana Territory was divided at 36,30 parallel; north of this line must be free; south of this line could be slave
Why was it important to Congress to keep the number of slave and free states equal? to keep the United States Senate evenly divided between the free North and the slave South
What important event happened in California in 1849? gold rush
Who has been called the Great Compromiser and why was he called that? Henry Clay; proposed both the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
Who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska bill? Stephen Douglas
What were the three provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? 1) Created new territories, Kansas and Nebraska 2) Popular sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery in both 3)call it the Kansas-Nebraska Act
What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on Kansas? caused bloody fighting between pro-slavery and antislavery forces,Bleeding Kansas
How did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case? The Supreme Court ruled against the Scott's 7 to 3. Chief Justice Taney stated that as an African American Dred Scott was an inferior and without rights. Thus he was not a citizen and could not sue anyone. As an enslaved person he was property.
"What did Lincoln mean when he said A house divided against itself cannot stand? the United States could not continue half-slave and half-free; the problem of slavery must be solved
Why did southern states refuse to accept Lincolns election as president? they feared he would abolish slavery or at least further restrict it
Who was elected president of the Confederate States of America? Jefferson Davis
Why did the Battle of Antietam mark a new stage in the Civil War? because after Antietam, The emancipation proclamation was issued
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? freed slaves in those Southern states still rebelling against the U.S. on 1 January 1863
In the Gettysburg Address what dual purpose did Lincoln believe the Civil War was fulfilling? preserve the Union and abolish slavery
Who spoke the words With malice towards none? Lincoln
What two ideas did the Radical Republicans want included in the federal governments Reconstruction policy? 1) Military occupation of the South2) Civil rights for African-Americans
What action did the Radical Republicans take after President Andrew Johnson tried to prevent their program on behalf of freedmen? they tried to impeach him but failed
Identify the Thirteenth Amendment. freed the slaves
Identify the Fourteenth Amendment. gave citizenship to African-Americans; guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Identify the Fifteenth Amendment. gave African-American males the right to vote
What deal was made between Southern Democrats and Republicans to end Reconstruction? Southern Democrats support the Republican candidate for president and Republicans would end military occupation of the South
What are two advantages of a corporation? 1) ability to raise large amounts of money2) limited liability
What does it mean for a corporation to have limited liability? the corporation itself rather than the individual stockholders, is responsible for the business actions
Why was the development of the Bessemer steel process important? made possible the large-scale production of steel
Who developed the laissez faire theory Adam Smith; The Wealth of Nations
Define laissez faire the theory that govt. should leave business alone; it should neither help nor hinder business
How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson? Plessy v. Ferguson = Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment
Explain W.E.B. DuBois position on racial segregation in the South and racial discrimination in the North. W.E.B. DuBois wanted immediate political equality for African-Americans
When was the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People formed and what was its purpose?" NAACP; 1909; gain legal rights for African-Americans
What were the results of the development of social problems in rural and urban America during the late nineteenth century? led to the Progressive movement
What social problems did industrialization create in American cities during the late nineteenth century? 1) dangerous working conditions2) use and abuse of child labor and women workers
Describe the early history of the American Federation of Labor. grew slowly and at first lost most of its struggles with big business
What happened at the Homestead Strike? Homestead Strike = a bloody and unsuccessful strike by the AF of L at the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892
What was the Pullman Strike? Pullman Strike = an 1894 strike by railroad employees against the Pullman Company
What was the International Ladies Garment Workers Union? an early attempt to organize women who worked in textile factories
What was the Progressive Movement? Progressive Movement = a movement beginning about 1900 that aimed at solving political, economic, and social problems
What were three achievements of the Progressive Movement on the national level? 1) 17th Amendment2) Sherman Anti-Trust Act3) Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Define initiative a process that permits citizens to propose laws to their state or local governments
What reform did Progressives use to protect voters privacy? the secret ballot
What was the Seventeenth Amendment? 17th Amendment = provided for direct election of U.S. senators rather than election by the state legislatures
Define the term trust. trust = a group of corporations whose stock was controlled by a central board of directors
Who was president when Congress passed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act and what two things did the Clayton Anti-Trust Act do? Woodrow Wilson; 1) outlawed price-fixing by competing corporations2) exempted unions from the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (in other words, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not be used against unions)
Name one leader of the womens suffrage movement? Susan B. Anthony
For what modern movements was the womens suffrage movement a forerunner? many modern protest movements
What two new technologies opened up Western lands for settlement and made farming in the region more profitable? railroads and mechanical reapers
For what did farmers use the mechanical reaper? harvest wheat
Give four examples of how immigrants made valuable contributions to the dramatic industrial growth of America during the late 1800s? 1) Built the transcontinental railroad2) worked in textile and steel mills in the Northeast3) worked in the clothing industry in New York City4) mined coal in the mid-Appalachian Mountains
What problems did the rapid growth of American cities cause? "1) housing shortages; 2) the need for public services like sewage and water systems; 3) the need for public transportation
What types of mass transportation did other American cities use at the turn of the twentieth century? trolley and streetcar lines
Explain historians melting pot thesis. melting pot thesis = Immigrants have come from all parts of the world.These have all brought their native cultures with them. These cultures have melted together to form a new American culture.
What does the acronym WASP mean? White Anglo-Saxon (British) Protestant
"What two lawspassed by Congress during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries attempted to limit immigration? Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
What did American businessmen believe would be gained from international trade? 1) make huge profits2) bring economic prosperity through international trade
Why have some historians called the late nineteenth century the age of American imperialism? the U.S. gained control of Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands
Who were the president and secretary of state when the United States proposed the Open Door Policy? William McKinley (President) and John Hay (Secretary of State)
What was the McKinley administrations goal when it announced the Open Door Policy? open up the Chinese market to American businessmen; previously U.S. had been excluded (kept out)
What president was responsible for Dollar Diplomacy? William Howard Taft
What were the two parts of Dollar Diplomacy? " Dollar Diplomacy: 1) encourage American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America 2) promise that the U.S. military would intervene if our interests were threatened"
In what type of imperialism was the United States engaging through both the Open Door Policy and Dollar Diplomacy? economic imperialism
What territory did the United States annex (add) at the end of the Spanish-American War? Philippines and Puerto Rico
What position did the United States take with regard to Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War? said U.S. had right to intervene in Cuban affairs
When did the United States truly start pursuing an internationalist foreign policy? when it entered World War I in 1917
Why did the United States eventually enter World War I on the side of the Allies? Reasons for joining the Allies:1) German submarine warfare against American merchant shipping2) American cultural and historical ties to Great Britain
What was the result of Americas entrance into World War I? Germany was defeated in 1918
Identify the League of Nations. League of Nations = an organization of nations established at the end of World War I to maintain world stability and peace
What were the five major principles of the Treaty of Versailles? 5 principles of Treaty of Versailles 1) national self-determination 2) freedom of the seas 3) League of Nations 4) the mandate system 5) Germany was responsible for World War I; had to pay reparations (war damages)
"Under the Treaty of Versailles what was a mandate?" a mandate = a region administered by another country until it was judged ready for independence
What happened to the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the Versailles Treaty? Ottoman Empire was divided into mandates
How did France and Great Britain benefit from the division of the Ottoman Empire? 1) France got Syria as a mandate2) Great Britain got Palestine and Iraq as mandates
What new European nations did the Versailles Treaty create? Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland
What size vote is necessary for the Senate to ratify a treaty with a foreign country? 2/3
What were three major causes of the Great Depression? 1) Stock market crash2) Collapse of nations banking system3) High protective tariffs
What happened to stock prices on the New York Stock Exchange between 1920 and 1929? Steadily increased
What does it mean to buy stock on margin? Buy stock on credit
"What did many investors do when the stock market dropped Sold their stock; stock prices dropped even further
What functions as the central bank of the United States? The Federal Reserve System
Explain how a Federal Reserve Bank works? If a bank needs to borrow money
Who appoints the members of the Federal Reserve Board? The president
What are two functions of the Federal Reserve Board? 1) oversees the actions of the Federal Reserve Banks2) sets the interest rate which banks must pay to borrow money from the Federal Reserve
Why is the Federal Reserve Boards power to set interest rates important? enables the Federal Reserve to control the nations money supply
Under what circumstances might the Federal Reserve Board raise interest rates? if the Federal Reserve believes the American economy is overheating and thereby causing inflation
Define inflation. inflation = when prices increase and the dollar buys less when prices increase and the value of the dollar decreases
Was the Federal Reserve Board able to prevent the 1929 stock market crash from triggering the Great Depression? no
Why did many banks fail when the stock market crashed? 1) banks had invested savings deposits in the stock market2) banks had loaned money to stock speculators who were buying stock on margin
How did bank failures after the stock market crash affect Americans confidence in the nations banking system? Americans lost confidence
"After the 1929 stock market crash how did Congress try to help American business?" passed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (the Tariff Act of 1930)
Identify the Hawley-Smoot Tariff (Tariff Act of 1930). a protective tariff that set the highest tariff rates in American history
Congress intended the Hawley-Smoot Tariff to help business. Why do most historians believe it actually hurt business? encouraged foreign countries to retaliate (to return like for like; do unto others, as they do unto you) by passing high tariffs of their own"
How did the erection of trade barriers by all of the worlds major industrial powers affect world trade? strangled world trade
What four-pronged effect did the Great Depression have on the United States? 1) unemployment increased 2) banks closed 3) political unrest 4) farm foreclosures
Whom did most Americans blame for the Great Depression? President Herbert Hoover
"Who ran for president in 1932 what was each candidates political party Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat)Herbert Hoover (Republican)Roosevelt won
Who told the American people in 1933 that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself? Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
What was the New Deals three-pronged strategy, what were the 3 r's relief, recovery, and reform
Identify the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). "Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation = protects the money of depositors in insured banks; today FDIC insures deposits up to $100,000
Identify the Social Security Act. offered safeguards for workers, including unemployment insurance and retirement benefits
What did Americans come to believe was a purpose of the federal government? "to provide care for those Americans who through no fault of their own could not take care of themselves"
What three basic rights did organized labor acquire or gain during the New Deal? "1) right to form a union 2) right to strike, 3) minimum wage"
What organization did the Allies found in 1945 near the end of World War II? United Nations
Contrast the American belief regarding the United States role in the world after World War I with that after World War II. After World War II, Americans believed the U.S. had an important role to play in world affairs, while after World War I Americans retreated into isolationism (refused to join the League of Nations).
Define socialism. Socialism = an economic system in which the govt. owns and controls the means of production; for example under socialism, the govt. owns power plants, transportation and communication companies, mines, and steel mills
Identify containment. "containment = the post-World War II American foreign policy that tried to check the expansion of the Soviet Union and communism through diplomatic economic, and military means
What was the dual purpose of the Marshall Plan? 1) rebuild European economies2) prevent the spread of communism
Who was Chiang Kai-shek? Chiang Kai-shek = leader of the anti-communist Chinese
Where did Mao force Chiang to flee? the island of Formosa off the coast of China
What government did Chiang set up after he fled to Formosa? Taiwan
Why did many Americans fear that communist spies held important positions in the federal government? the trials of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs
Identify Alger Hiss. "Alger Hiss: federal govt. official who was accused of passing secret documents to the Soviets in the late 1930s; although Hiss claimed he was innocent he was convicted of perjury; many Americans believed Hiss was guilty of treason.
Identify Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. "Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: Americans who had worked on the United States atomic project; were arrested for passing atomic secrets to the Soviets convicted of espionage, and executed
Define McCarthyism. McCarthyism = unfairly accusing others of disloyalty and subversion (threatening to overthrow the government)
What event in 1950 was a major test for Americas containment policy? the Korean War: when communist North Korea invaded non-communist south Korea
What country entered the Korean War after the American military forces counterattacked and drove deep into North Korea? communist China
What did President Eisenhower adopt as a part of containment? massive retaliation
Identify massive retaliation. "massive retaliation=the Eisenhower administrations threat of swiftall-out military actions against a nation committing aggression (attack)"
What promise did American presidents refuse to make to the Soviet Union during the Cold War? not to make a first strike nuclear attack
To what place did many Cubans flee in order to escape communist rule? Florida
Who became president of the United States in 1961? John F. Kennedy
What happened during the Bay of Pigs invasion? it was a complete disaster; the popular uprising against Castro never happened; Castros army had captured or killed most of the American-supported invaders
How did President Kennedy learn that the Soviet Union had placed missiles in Cuba? American spy-plane photographs
What action did President Kennedy take to end the Cuban Missile Crisis? naval blockade of Cuba; threatened to take further steps if the Soviets didnt remove their missiles
With what type of war was the world threatened during the Cuban Missile Crisis? nuclear war
Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis? Nikita Khrushchev
How did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson? that separate but equal facilities did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment
When and by whom was the NAACP formed? by an interracial group of reformers in 1909
Who was one of the early leaders of the NAACP? W.E.B. DuBois
On what basis did the NAACP attack Jim Crow laws before World War II? "Before the end of World War II the NAACP attacked the equality issue of the separate but equal doctrine. The NAACP argued that the Southern states were violating the Plessy decision, because the separate facilities were not equal.
Who served as chief counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund? Thurgood Marshall
Identify Oliver Hill. chief counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense Team in Virginia
On what desegregation case did Oliver Hill work? the Prince Edward County school desegregation case
"To what other desegregation case did the Brown decision apply besides the one from Topeka Kansas?" the Prince Edward County, Virginia school desegregation case"
"Who was Senator Harry F. Byrd the leader of the small group of Democrats who controlled Virginias politics
"After the Supreme Court handed down the Brown decision what policy did Virginias governor and state legislature adopt under Senator Byrds leadership?" Massive Resistance
What were Virginias Massive Resistance laws? What did the Massive Resistance laws instruct Virginias governor to do as a last resort? "state laws that made it illegal for Virginia public schools to desegregate even when they were under federal court order to do so
What two things happened when Virginias Massive Resistance movement reached a climax in 1959? "1) Virginias governor closed several public schoolsrather than obey federal court orders to integrate them. 2) Upper and middle class whites started private academies so that they could avoid sending their children to integrated public schools"
What did the Brown decision show the Supreme Court could do when it interpreted its powers broadly? reshape American society
What two actions did African-Americans take during the 1950s and 1960s to reshape American public opinion and secure the passage of federal civil rights legislation? 1) worked through the federal court system (filed racial discrimination cases in federal court) 2) used mass protest (non-violent resistance)
What precedent did the Supreme Court use to make its decision in the Montgomery bus segregation case? the Brown decision
What was the purpose of the 1963 March on Washington? to lobby Congress for passage of major civil rights laws
"Who made the most famous speech at the 1963 March on Washington and what was the most famous line of this speech?" Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; I have a dream."
For what two reasons was the 1963 March on Washington important? "1) Helped influence public opinion to support major civil rights legislation2) Showed the power of non-violent, mass protest
What were the two parts of the 1965 Voting Right Act? 1965 Voting Rights Act: 1) outlawed literacy tests as a requirement for voter registration 2) sent federal registrars to the South to register voters
What was the result of the 1965 Voting Rights Act? a large increase in the number of African-American voters throughout the South
Who was assassinated in 1968? "Dr. Martin Luther King
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do? outlawed racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
What made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election between 1948 and 1992? the Cold War
What Cold War policy resulted in American involvement in Vietnam? containment
Who was the leader of the Vietnamese independence movement? Ho Chi Minh
What type of government did Ho Chi Minh want an independent Vietnam to have? communist
What action did France take after its army was defeated by Ho Chi Minhs forces? France withdrew from Indochina
Who were the Vietcong? South Vietnamese communists who wanted to reunify all of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh; southern revolutionaries who formed the National Liberation Front
What was the National Liberation Front? the official name of the Vietcong
What action did the Eisenhower administration take to counter North Vietnams efforts to take over South Vietnam? sent large amounts of economic and military aid to South Vietnam
Under what president did the American military buildup in Vietnam begin? John F. Kennedy
Who succeeded John F. Kennedy as president? Lyndon B. Johnson
What action did President Johnson take in Vietnam in 1965? escalated or increased the American military buildup in Vietnam
How many American troops were stationed in Vietnam by 1968? "more than 500,000
What did it mean for the United States to fight a limited war in Vietnam? limited war = avoid any military action which might widen the war to include the Soviet Union or communist China
What was the position of the American people on the Vietnam War by 1968? "divided: many Americans supported the war and many opposed it also
What was the center of active opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War? College campuses
Who won the 1968 presidential election? Richard Nixon
Define Vietnamization. Vietnamization = the Nixon administrations policy of building up South Vietnamese forces while gradually withdrawing American troops
Did Vietnamization succeed or fail? failed
What political scandal caused President Nixon to resign as president in 1974? Watergate
Define Watergate. Watergate scandal = the public exposure of a burglary and its cover-up by the Nixon administration
Who succeeded Richard Nixon as president? Gerald Ford after Richard Nixon was forced to resign as president
What happened in Vietnam during Gerald Fords presidency? "North Vietnamese troops overran South Vietnam
What did many Vietnam veterans face in the United States when they returned home? indifference or outright hostility
Who served as President Richard Nixons secretary of state in 1972? Henry Kissinger
By 1972 what did President Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger realize regarding the relationship between the Soviet Union and China? "instead of being strong allies China and the Soviet Union had become rivals for power
"During the early seventies what policy did Nixon and Kissinger initiate (start) towards the Soviet Union and China?" by talking with both the Soviet Union and China, the U.S. hoped to play the two communist countries off against each other
What did the United States begin to establish with communist China in 1972? formal diplomatic relations
With what Chinese leader did President Nixon meet in 1972? Mao Zedong
What was the Soviet Unions capital? Moscow
Out of what talks did this treaty grow? the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
Define the SALT talks. SALT talks = the Soviet-American discussions (1969) to establish limits on the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by both sides
"Why was the SALT treaty so important in spite of its many loopholes?" the SALT Treaty was the first step toward ending the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union
What caused the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War? both internal and external pressures in the 1980s
Who became president in 1981and to which political party did the new president belong? Ronald Reagan ; Republican
What did President Reagan try to assert throughout the world during his first term? American power
How did Reagans new policy affect the United States relationship with the Soviet Union? tension with the Soviet Union increased
Under what conditions would President Reagan consider reductions in nuclear arms? when Reagan was convinced that the United States was at least equal to the Soviet Union in military power
What action did President Reagan take in Western Europe during his first term? placed new nuclear missiles in Western Europe
How did the renewal of the arms race affect the Soviet Union? forced the Soviet Union to increase its military budget in order to compete with the United States
Why was the need to increase military spending a serious problem for the Soviet leadership? because the Soviet economy was very inefficient
Who became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985? Mikhail Gorbachev
Define the term Glasnost. Glasnost = Gorbachevs policy of encouraging freedom of expression in the Soviet Union
What did the Russian word perestroika mean? perestroika = restructuring of Soviet society
"Under perestroika what types of economic and political changes did Gorbachev want to occur in Soviet society?" 1) less government control of the economy2) some private enterprise3) steps toward establishing democracy
Among what group did Gorbachevs new policies raise high expectations? among millions of well-educated Russians
What other movement did the Gorbachev government face during the late eighties? rising nationalism within the Soviet republics
To what in the United States were the Soviet republics equivalent? Soviet republics = American states
What feeling were the eastern European communist nations experiencing during the late eighties? rising feeling of nationalism
What nations became satellites of the Soviet Union after World War II? nations of Eastern Europe
List the Russian satellites. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania
"What western leader added pressure on the Soviet Union by traveling to the Berlin Wall and saying Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall? Ronald Reagan
After Germanys reunification, what quickly happened in the Soviet Unions other Eastern European satellites? Germany was formally reunified under the democratic leadership of West Germany.
"After Germanys reunification what quickly happened in the Soviet Unions other Eastern European satellites?" Communist governments fell from power.
What action did the three Baltic republics take in 1991? declared their independence from the Soviet Union
What precedent did the three Baltic republics set by this action? set precedent for other Soviet republics to declare their independence
By the end of 1991 what did Gorbachev agree to do? "dismantle (take apart) the entire Communist system including the Soviet Communist Party
"What action did Gorbachev take on Christmas Day 1991?" resigned and declared the Soviet Union had ended
What have historians often called the period in American history from 1824 to 1850? the Age of Jackson
What did the Age of Jackson witness? a new democratic spirit in American politics
"Before the 1828 election with whom had the majority of the American people been satisfied with selecting their president?" the aristocrats
During the Jacksonian period what action did many of the older states take regarding voter qualifications?" either lowered or eliminated property qualifications
What new method of choosing presidential candidates was first used during the 1828 election? national nominating conventions
To what political party did Andrew Jackson belong? Democratic
What did President Jackson use to reward his political supporters? the spoils system
What was the major criticism of the spoils system? it failed to put the most qualified people in government jobs
Why did Jackson distrust the Bank of the United States? because Jackson believed the BUS was an undemocratic tool of the Eastern elite
How did President Jacksons veto of the bank recharter bill differ from all previous presidential vetoes? it was not based solely on constitutional grounds
What right did Jackson claim for the president in his message vetoing recharter of the Second BUS? a President had the right to veto bills for any reason he wanted
"Who ran against President Jackson in the 1832 election and what was this candidates political party?" Henry Clay; National Republican
To what did the National Republican Party change its name? the Whig Party
What did Jackson make as a major goal of his second term as president? to destroy the power of the BUS
How did Jacksons reelection affect the BUS? brought an end to the Second Bank of the United States
What was the Panic of 1837? Panic of 1837 = an economic situation that resulted from reckless land speculation
What group of Americans was particularly hurt by the reforms of Jacksonian democracy? American Indians
What president proposed the Indian Removal Act in 1830? Jackson
What was the Trail of Tears? the forced journey of Cherokee Indians from their homes in Georgia to a new Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma
What happened to nearly one-fourth of the Cherokees on the Trail of Tears? "died of hardship,sickness, and starvation"
What right for women did the Seneca Falls Declaration support? womens suffrage or the right to vote
What was the United States policy when World War II began? Its policy was to remain neutral although FDR slanted that policy to the favor of Great Britain
What were the major events of the war in Europe before the United States entered? "France was overrun. Britain was attacked by air during the Battle of Britain. Germany also invaded his former partner
What militaristic actions did the Japanese take during the 1930's? The Japanese conquered Manchuria and invaded China.
What was the response of the United States to these actions? Exports of oil and steel to the Japanese were embargoed by the United States.
"What did FDR call December 7, 1941? FDR said it was a day 'which will live in infamy' as he asked for a declaration of war from Congress a few days after Pearl Harbor.
What did Hitler do after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? He declared war on the United States.
What was the Axis strategy? The Germans wanted to take control of oil and other resources of the Soviet Union. They also wanted to force the British out of the war before America could come with her industrial power.
What happened in the Pacific theater following Pearl Harbor? The Japanese conquered the American possession of the Philippines along with the British colony of Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. They also planned to invade Hawaii and Australia
What was the Japanese strategy? Hope that the United Stated would not contest the territories that the Japanese conquered.
What battles were the major turning points in the European theater? 1) El Alamein: the British 8th Army defeated the advance of the German Africa Korps in Egypt.2) Stalingrad: The German 6th Army was defeated in Stalingrad and forced back by the Russians.3) Normandy: The Allies invaded the coast of France
How did minority participation in World War II reflect social conditions in the United States? African-Americans generally served in segregated military units. They demanded the right to serve in combat roles.
How did minorities complete to Allied victory? 1) The Tuskegee airmen, African-American members of the US army air corps, served in the European theater with distinction2) Nisei regiments: These units made up mostly of Japanese Americans earned a large number of decorations in the European theater.
What was the purpose of the Geneva convention? Its purpose was to ensure the fair treatment of all prisoners of war.
How did the treatment of prisoners of war differ? "In the Pacific theater US soldiers captured in the Philippines were horribly mistreated. Japanese soldiers in most cases also chose not to surrender and committed suicide instead. "
Did this treatment differ in the European theater? "For Americans that were captured by the Germans the Geneva convention was generally followed.
Define 'Final Solution'? Germany's decision to exterminate all European Jews.
What were the Nuremberg trials? Nazi leaders and others were convicted of war crimes.
What was the importance of the Nuremberg Trials? 1) The trials emphasized individual responsibility for actions during war regardless of orders. 2) The trials also led to increased demands for a Jewish homeland.
How did the United States organize its resources to achieve victory during World War II? Economic resources: Rationing was used to make sure that the military had resources. War bonds and taxes were used to finance the war. Business was retooled to wartime production. Human resources: Women and minorities entered the labor force
How did women and minorities contribute to America's effort during World War II? Women: They joined the workforce replacing the men. (Rosie the Riveter). Many also participated in non combat military roles. African-Americans: They migrated north to work in war plants. African-Americans also campaigned for victory in war and equa
"How were Americans of Japanese descent treated after US entry in World War II Japanese Americans were relocated to internment camps. Some reasons for the relocation include strong anti-Japanese prejudice on the west coast of the United States and the false belief that they were aiding Japan
Did the United States government eventually apologize for this action? Yes. They also provided financial restitution to the internees that were still alive.
How did media and communications assist the Allied efforts during World War II? "1) The US government maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war.2) Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort.3) The entertainment industry produced moviesplays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support