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Social Studies

What do religions focus on? Events and forces outside the natural world.
What do philosophies focus on? Human interaction with others.
What was religion like during the Neolithic Age? Hunters and gathers believed that certain areas or animals were sacred because spirits were present in such objects. They also believed in polytheism, and believed each god had a different agricultural role .
True or False: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Olmec, Chavin, Greece, and Rome all had very similar polytheistic backgrounds. True.
What were the three universalizing religions and what helped them grow? Buddhism, Islam and Christianity, grew rapidly due to the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean Circuit.
What were the ethnic religions? Judaism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Hinduism.
What time period had the most rapid spreading of religion due to the trade routes? 600 BCE- 600 CE.
Holy book of Judaism. Torah, written in 10th century BCE.
Followers of Judaism. Hebrews.
Founder of Judaism that made a covenant with God. Abraham.
Where Abraham and his followers went to practice monotheism after slavery in Egypt. Israel.
Hebrews went through ____________. (spreading of people due to conquers) Diaspora.
What religions did Judaism inspire? Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Islam.
How did the Hebrews' view of God differ from earlier religions'? They saw god as less human-like than earlier religions, “all knowing, all powerful, and always just.
Zoroastrianism was the official religion of ________________. Persia.
Founder of Zoroastrianism. Zoro Aster. (born in 7th century BCE)
Holy book of Zoroastrianism. Zend Avesta.
The only god of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda.
True or False: Zoroastrianism encouraged people to decide for themselves to help good or evil. True.
Evil spirit of Zoroastrianism. Angra Mainyu.
Where was Christianity established? Judea, Rome.
Founder of Christianity . Jesus of Nazareth.
True or False: Christianity only appealed to the rich because only those of high social status could go to heaven. False, it appealed to the poor because all could go to heaven despite social status or ethnicity.
Christian values. Love and charity.
How did Jesus die? Jesus was crucified in 30 CE because the Romans were threatened by him.
Who spread Christianity after Jesus' death? Paul spread the religion after Jesus’ death and helped explain it to Greeks and Romans.
Passed by Emperor Constantine, toleration towards Christianity. Edict of Milan.
Made Christianity the official religion of Rome but the downfall of Rome was inevitable. Emperor Theodosius.
The first to attempt to spread monotheism over his god, Aten. Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh.
True or False: Judaism was the first successful monotheistic religion that began in 2000 BCE. True.
Largest ethnic religion. Hinduism.
Where was Hinduism established? In India and was tied into its culture.
Hinduism believes in a greater __________ that is a part of all humans’ souls/_____________. Spirit, Atman.
Destiny. Karma.
Duties. Dharma.
How is karma determined? Caste.
It is believed that if you fulfill your ________, you will move on to the next _________ level until you reach _________, or reunite with the universal spirit, _____________. Dharma, caste, moksha, Brahman.
Opposite deities of Hinduism. Vishnu and Shiva.
What provided moral guidelines for Hindus? Rig Veda and other writings.
Where was Buddhism established? Ganges River Valley.
Founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha Gautama.
Union with universal spirit of Buddhism. Nirvana.
Guidelines that explained how to achieve Nirvana. Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path.
True or False: Anyone can achieve nirvana. True.
Who helped spread Buddhism by converting to it ? Ashoka.
Two types of Buddhism. Theravada (strict) and Mahayana.
Confucius' idea of a noble man to serve as a model for human behavior in The Analects. The gentleman.
Founder of Confucianism. Confucius.
Book of Confucianism that was written by his followers after Confucius' death. The Analects.
Confucius' belief that people should give and take equally within the five relationships. Reciprocity.
Confucianism's values. Family , five key relationships.
When was Confucianism established and what philosophy did it take out of power? After the Warring States Period. (555-479 BCE), Legalism.
Value of Confucianism that emphasizes filial piety and family. Xiao.
Value of Confucianism that emphasizes kindness and benevolence. Ren.
Value of Confucianism that emphasizes tradition and reciprocity. Li.
Philosophers that edited Confucianism later on. Mencius and Xunzi.
True or False: Confucianism is a religion. False, although Confucianism does not deny the existence of gods, it makes people responsible for their own behavior, which makes it a philosophy.
Philosophy that encourages its followers to retreat from society and reflect on their life. Taoism.
An inevitable force that is the way of nature. Dao.
What is the dao often compared to? Water, because it appears still but can affect much.
Founder of Daoism. Laozi.
True or False: Daoism encouraged a strong, centralized government and did not care about harmony. False, it encouraged individuals to find their own meaning of life through the dao, and cared deeply about harmony.
Islam's Founder. Muhammad.
True or False: Unlike Jesus of Nazareth, Muhammad was seen as human. True.
Where did Islam originate from? The Arabian Peninsula.
Why was Islam a universalizing religion and what helped it spread? It appealed to people of many different backgrounds and cultures. People believed religion or philosophy was more significant than government, which helped it spread.
Arabia's geography and its nickname. Dry, uninhabitable deserts, known as "the empty quarter".
True or False: Arabia was under one centralized government before Islam. False, they were split into tribes that often fought with one another.
Name for Arabians. Bedouins.
Why were Mecca and Medina significant before Islam? They were major trading centers across the Red Sea.
Ka'aba. Religious shrine of Islam, devoted to Allah during the Bedouin reign, only one not destroyed by Muhammad.
Black Stone. Sacred rock in the ka'aba that held spirits inside of it.
Bedouin religion was a mixture of _______________, objects containing ordinary objects, and _____________, although Allah was seen as the supreme deity. Animism, polytheism.
How did Muhammad establish Islam? He received visions from Allah telling him that he should be worshiped as the only God.
Muhammad and his followers' journey to Medina after fighting with the Bedouin government. Hijrah.
Muslim community. Umma.
Muhammad's successor. Abu Bakr.
Islam's holy book. Koran.
Collection of stories and quotes of Muhammad. Hadith.
Islam's laws. Sharia.
Muhammad was seen as __________ ________ _________ because Muslims believed he was the final prophet of God. Seal of Prophets.
Five pillars of Islam. Confession of faith, pray five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, charity, pilgrimage to Mecca.
Islam's temple. Mosque.
Abu Bakr was well known for ______________. Expansion.
Reason Muslims wanted to expand Islam and conquer, as well as the weakening of other empires. Jihad. ("holy war")
Third caliph of Islam. Ali.
First caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. Mauwiya.
True or False: Conquered people of the caliphates were forced to convert to Islam. False, religious toleration was in place, nonetheless non-Muslims had to pay taxes.
Nickname for Christians and Jews by the Muslims, shows respect due to their common theme of monotheism. People of the book.
How was the Umayyad Dynasty overthrown? Non-Arabs revolted.
What were the two dynasties of Islam? Umayyad and Abbasid.
What dynasty of Islam was in power during the golden age? Abbasid.
What caused the downfall of the Abbasid Empire? Due to the non-Arab revolts that led to the fall of the Ummayad Dynasty. the family decided to treat non-Arabs equally. This led to creating an extremely large, multi-cultural empire. They also had little control over the military.
Three concepts the Abbasid Empire developed. Sharia, ulama, viziers.
What was a common theme between the founding of Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism? They were all found by wandering holy men.
Inventions involving ____________ were involved in the golden age of Islam. Agriculture.
Examples of Islam's inventions involving agriculture and what it led to. New crops (sugarcane, rice, spinach) and farming techniques, surplus of food.
How were the Abbasid Empire and its everyday citizens so wealthy? Trade and imperialism.
True or False: Early Islam respected women and treated them well, but as caliphates grew, they lost power. True.
True or False: Muslim caliphates tolerated slavery. True.
All Muslims had to understand ___________ in order to read the Koran. Arabic.
Famous Muslim story about a wife trying to save herself from her husband by telling bedtime stories. A Thousand One Nights.
Islamic universities that studied science and philosophy. Madrasas.
Islamic praying tower. Minaret.
Why did Muslims decorate the mosques and pottery with shapes instead of religious figures? It was forbidden to create drawings of Muhammad or Allah, as it was known that only Allah could produce things related to humans.
The Islamic golden age made many strides in ______________, especially Al-Jabr. Mathematics.
Who conquered the Abbasids? The Seljuk-Turks.
Who conquered the Seljuk Turks? The Mongols.
What was Hinduism a blend of and is it considered a philosophy or religion? Aryan and Dravidian beliefs, religion.
Is Buddhism considered a philosophy or religion? Both.
Despite being an ethnic philosophy, how did Confucianism spread? Through loyal disciples and poems.
True or False: There are no scriptures written about Daoism. True.
What were two effects of the Silk Road and Indian Ocean Maritime System? Spreading of new ideas and new merchant class.
True or False: Moses was born in Egypt, received the Ten Commandments, and is only seen as a prophet for the Jews. False, although the first two ideas are true, Moses is seen as a prophet for Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
The Umayyads were well known for ______________. Expansion.
The Abbasids were known for ________________. Trade.
Why did Beduoin clans fight with one another? Since they lived in a dry climate, food was scarce and fought over.
Why did the Bedouin leaders fear Muhammad's teachings? Since Islam was a monotheistic religion, its spreading meant that Mecca would receive less publicity for their polytheistic shrines.
Dome of the rock. A rock that was holy to both Muslims and Jews, because it was where Muhammad started his journey and where Abraham offered Isaac to God.
Sunnis. Believed the caliph should be elected, made up the majority of the population.
Shiites. Believed the caliph should be a descent of Muhammad, supported Alli.
A group of Muslims that connected their lives to the divine truth, similar to Buddhists, example: whirling dervishes. Sufis.
Religions/Philosophies that were established in period one. Hinduism, Judaism, ?.
Religions/Philosophies that were established in period two. Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity.
Religions/Philosophies that were established in period three. Islam.
Scripture for Buddhism. Tripactaca.
Similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism. Both believed in a greater spirit that you would meet with if you met certain standards.
How are the Four Noble Truths and Eight Fold Path related to one another? The Four Noble Truths tell you that in order to reach Nirvana, you must stop suffering, and the Eight Fold Path tells you how to stop suffering and end desire.
Why was Buddhism seen as a better option for lower class Hindus? if you are in the lower class of Hinduism, you must go through many lives in order to reach moksha. In Buddhism, all could reach nirvana in one life.
Why was knowledge power in Confucianism? Confucianism's leaders were determined by tests about Confucianism, and those who passed the tests were given authority.
Tests everyday people took to get most jobs in Confucianism. Civil Service Exams.
Created by: emarciante9
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