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The Cold War


What are the Long Term causes of the Cold War? Ideology (Communism v Capitalism) Mutual denial of legitimacy Suppression of internal dissent Allied intervention in Russian Civil War (1918-22) Nazi-Soviet Pact (August 1939) USSR not invited to League of Nations
What are the Short Term causes of the Cold War? The arms race (1947), Polarisation, Establishment of Comintern.
What are some of the features of Communism? Marxism, Engels, Marxism-Leninsm(-Stalinism) Command Economy Proletariat v Bourgeoisie
What are some of the features of Capitalism? Free Market Economy Democracy, with free and fair elections Religion is allowed
What is a traditionalist interpretation of the origins of the Cold War? They believed that the USSR was ultimately responsible for the Cold War. They see the USSR as an aggressor and that the US had to intervene in Europe to stop USSR take over.
What is a revisionists interpretation of the origins of the Cold War? They saw the USA as the cause of the Cold War. They blamed the allies for over aggressive reactions to Soviet action in Eastern Europe and tried to force the USSR into the free market.
What were the objectives of Stalin in the post-war negotiations? Wanted a buffer zone between the West and USSR, with friendly states bordering him. Wanted to expand the USSR further into Europe and spread Communism. Wanted to secure more resources to benefit the Soviet Economy and reparations.
What were the objectives of Churchill in the post-war negotiations? Wanted to secure the British Empire and role as a superpower. Wanted to drive the Soviet Union out of countries they had no influence in, according to the Percentages Agreement 1944 Moscow Conference. Make sure there would never be another German threat
What were the objectives of Roosevelt in the post-war negotiations? Didn't want to see another war breakout in Europe. Wanted to establish a "United Nations" (Atlantic Charter 1941). Wanted to establish democratic governments in occupied Europe. Stop spread of Communism. Free trade.
When was the Yalta Conference? What did aim to achieve? February 1945. Tried to establish the foundations for a lasting peace in Europe.
What did the Yalta Conference end with agreements on? Germany to be occupied into 4 zones, Britain, the USA, USSR and France would be the occupiers. The United Nations to be set up was agreed here.
What were the disagreements at the Yalta Conference? The Polish border would run along the Curzon Line, with land past that being given to the USSR, Poland would be compensated with land from Germany. Reorganising the provisional government by including politicians in exile. Elections to be held quickly.
What were the main differences between Yalta and Potsdam? During the Yalta Conference the war was still on going, whilst it was over in Europe by the time of Potsdam. Churchill had lost the 1945 General Election to Clement Attlee. Roosevelt had died and been replaced by Harry Truman.
When was the Potsdam Conference? August 1945.
What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference? Demilitarisation of Germany. Denazification of Germany. Punishment of War Criminals.
What issues caused disagreement at the Potsdam Conference? Future of Germany, type of govt., cost of reparations, trade agreements + borders. Disagreement on Poland's Western Frontiers. Use of the Atomic Bomb in Japan.
What were some of the major causes of the breakup of the Grand Alliance 1945-47? The US Policy of Containment. The Marshall Plan and the strings attached with taking it (i.e need to have a free market economy). The Paris Agreement
When was the London Conference and what did it aim to achieve? November - December 1947 It aimed to make sure that the occupation of Germany could end as quickly as possible for the US and Britain.
Why was there no agreement over Germany at the London Conference? Ideological differences led to mistrust between the West and USSR. The West wanted to set Germany free of any Communist influence. The USSR wanted control of the Rhur in western Germany. The USSR rejected the introduction of the Deutschmark.
What was the major cause of the Berlin Blockade? the Treaty of Brussels in 1948 - it established a West German state to be formed and a constitution to be drafted. As Stalin had control of all roads and railways to West Berlin, he shut them off to put pressure on the West to not pursue a W.G state.
How did the West ensure the survival of West Berlin? Who's idea was it? The West still had access to West Berlin through the air and British Foreign Secretary Bevin planned to fly food and goods into West Berlin. The USSR allowed the use of "corridors" in 1945.
Why didn't the Soviet Union interfere with the airlift? Because in 1947, American B29 Bombers - with modified one being able to carry nuclear weapons - arrived in East Anglia. As the USSR didn't know if they carried nuclear weapons so it wasn't worth the risk of shooting down aircraft.
How much food was the airlift bringing in per day? At the start of the airlift, the British and Americans were flying in 2000 tons of food per day. By winter, 5000 tons of food per day and by the end of the airlift, in April 1949, up to 8000 tons.
When was Germany officially separated into two states? August 1949 - establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany October 1949 - establishment of the German Democratic Republic
What organisation was set up in 1949? North Atlantic Treaty Organisation - NATO It was a defensive alliance against the Soviet Union
What events and alliances strengthened Western unity? Brussels Pact NATO 1949 Korean War 1950 Organisation of European Economic Cooperation 1948 Marshal Aid 1948 Germany joining NATO in May 1955
What was Cominform and COMECON? Cominform - a body in the USSR which coordinated communist parties across the world. COMECON - a response to the Marshal Plan, although not nearly as effective.
What was the Warsaw Pact? The Warsaw Pact was a response to the creation of NATO and more so, the allowance of West Germany into the organisation. It had the same aims and objectives as NATO.
When was the Polish Crisis? What happened? 1956 - the secret speech by Krushchev led to the people of Poland believing they could be more independent and led to an uprising. The Polish government crushed it with Soviet approval.
During the Berlin Crisis in 1961 what were Krushchev's aims? Delay NATO arming FRG. Show to his critics and China that he isn't soft on "imperialists". Deepen divisions in Western Alliance. Strengthen the GDR. Force West to accept the USSR as an equal.
When was the Polish Crisis? June - October 1956
What was the Polish Crisis? This was the worry that after the people of Poland were left disillusioned with the Government after a riot in Poznan left a high number of casualties. Gomulka came to power and the Soviet Union feared he would restore Polish Independence.
How did the Polish Crisis end? Krushchev received reassurances from Gomulka that Poland would remain a loyal member of the Warsaw Pact - Krushchev pulled the troops out of Poland and moved them to the situation that was unfolding in Hungary.
What was the foreshadow behind the Hungarian Uprising in 1956? In July 1956, the USSR had put pressure on Hung. to replace it's Stalinist leader, Ráksoi, with the more Liberal Nagy. He formed a more liberal style of Government.
What happened in the Hungarian Uprising in 1956? 23 Oct - a large demonstration got out of control asking for more freedoms. 30,000 Soviet Troops were deployed, but were planned to pull out after 30th Oct, but invaded after Nagy declared his desire to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and share power
When was the Suez Canal Crisis? October - November 1956
What was the cause of the Suez Crisis? After the USA had cancelled a loan for Egyptian Leader, Nasser, this led him to turning to the USSR and nationalising the Suez Canal, which was owned by an Anglo-French Company. Britain, France and Israel made a plan to invade Egypt.
What was the outcome of the Suez Crisis? Made the USSR look strong, after threatening the British and French with Nuclear attack, despite the West knowing they lacked the capability. Created divisions in the Western Alliance. End of Britain's role as a Superpower, creating bi-polar world.
When was the Cuban Missile Crisis? October 1962
What was the cause of the Cuban Missile Crisis? After Fidel Castro had taken power from the pro-American Fulgencio Batista in December 1956. The American-Cuban relations deteriorated due to Castro's anti-Americanism and relationship with the USSR. Castro wasn't a Communist at this point.
What was the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis? It made the USSR look like they gave in to the might of the US Navy, It left a potential Communist Threat on the United States doorstep, Bargaining power of the USSR reduced, 1963 Hotline established between Washington and Moscow, 1963 Test Ban Treaty
When was the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia? August 1968.
Why did the Soviet Union invade Czechoslovakia? Dubceck wanted to excessively reform Czsvkia, he wanted to introduce democracy and other civil liberties. The USSR saw this in violation of the Brezhnev Doctrine, which prohibited a socialist country depart socialist ways.
What was the impact of the invasion? Brezhnev Doctrine was born, Soviet Union military imposition of a "sovereign" country caused outrage in the West (only vocal), Events of Prague Spring left other Western Communists disillusioned.
When was the first period of Dètente? 1963 - 1979
What were the characteristics of Dètente? Break in the arms race, Greater tolerance of the others Political System, Agreements on 3rd world conflicts made, Leaders met at summits frequently, USSR began to relax some control over the Eastern Bloc.
What could some of the economic reasons for Dètente be? Both sides wanted arms control, USSR was experiencing tension with China a good relationship with the United States could be beneficial, United States saw there as being a stalemate in Europe.
What could some of the political reasons for Dètente be? Natural progression to peaceful coexistence, US wanted to pull out of Vietnam and thought the USSR could help influence the North to negotiate, Brezhnev saw that there being peace could create favourable conditions for promoting Communism.
When did a rift between the USSR and China begin to emerge? Following the death of Stalin in 1953.
What were the reasons for the Sino-Soviet split? The USSR wanted to dominate over China when China would never let this happen, Chinese-American relations posed a threat to the USSR, Chinese and Soviet troops clashed on the border in 1969, USSR withdrew support for Chinese Nuclear Weapons development
What was the impact of the Sino-Soviet split? Led to improved relations with the United States, Unhidden hostility opened up between the Chinese and Soviets, Split in the Communist World saw a reduction in Soviet influence.
What were some of the treaties that were signed during dètente? Partial Test Ban Treaty 1963, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968, SALT I 1972, SALT II 1979, Sea Bed Treaty 1972.
What were some of the advantages of dètente for the USSR? Recognised as a military equal in the West, Diminished concerns over rivalry with China , Access to US trade, technology & investment.
What were some of the advantages of dètente for the USA? Soviets might influence North Vietnam to accept peace with Indo-China, USSR provided a new market and area for investment, Soviets might cease their competition in the 3rd world and assist in reducing global commitments.
Some opinions of detente: Right-Wing Anti-Communist: detente was a mistake which allowed the USSR to survive for longer. Liberal Left: Any reduction of nuclear Armageddon is positive. The US also needed détente as a respite from arms race Realist: Detente was always a short term
What were the reasons for the Second Cold War? US conservatives felt that USSR had gained more out of detente, The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
What were the characteristics of the Second Cold War? Hostile Propaganda, Regan called the USSR "an empire of evil", Fear of the Soviet threat became the centre of US Foreign Policy, Proxy war in Afghanistan with the United States funding the Mujahideen to wage jihad on the atheist Soviets.
What was the impact of the Second Cold War? (Answers continued on the next card) Dramatic tension springed up, a stark contrast between that of the period of detente, Rise of more right-winged leaders with UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1979 and US President Ronald Regan in 1981,
Continued from the last point... Soviets were in a similar position in Afghanistan as the US in Vietnam, Boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Rejection of the SALT II Treaty in the US Senate.
When did Gorbachev come to power? March 1985
What were Gorbachev's two main policies and when were they introduced? Glasnost - June 1986 Perestrokia - 1985 - 1987
When was the Geneva Summit? 1985.
What did the Geneva Summit discuss? To improve US-Soviet relations
Created by: lukecoleman