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ENLIGHTENMENT

TERMS

TermDefinition
Enlightenment a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition
Humanism a philosophy that stresses reason and what humans can accomplish rejecting Church authority
Humanist believe what the human can accomplish without religion being at the center of their life
reason to think or argue in a logical manner
rational agreeable to reason
Rationalism idea that people can use reason or logical thought to understand and improve the world
individualism idea that the individual and their rights are more important than what may be good for the group
representative democracy form of government that people elect officials to represent their views
mercantilism wealth of a nation depends on its possession of precious metals, so foreign trade, so the establishment of colonies very important
Logic reason or sound judgment
direct democracy form of government that people make decisions
absolute monarchy monarch that has complete power
Revolution a sudden, complete, or marked change in something an abrupt overthrow of a government or group of rulers
geocentric earth as a center
Illumination intellectual or spiritual understanding or revelation
scientific revolution using careful observation (scientific method) and rational thought to understand/explain the natural world
constitutional monarchy monarchy that has limited government
Separation of Powers separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government so that no one branch becomes too strong; Montesquieu’s idea
heliocentric sun as a center
Social contract the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
Natural rights the rights that all people are born with-according to John Locke, the right of life, liberty and property
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizens document of the French Revolution =natural rights are universal. Thomas Jefferson directly influenced this document.
American Revolution (1775–1783) the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, by which the colonies won their independence
French Revolution (1789-1799) war in which the people of France overthrew their rulers (absolute monarchy) and created a new government as a result of serious disagreements. Ideals of the Enlightenment inspired the Revolution.
Estates French social hierarchy during Enlightenment; 3 levels
Bourgeoisie French middle class
Estates-General French representative assembly; comprised of members from each of the three Estates
Reign of Terror period of extreme violence enacted by the ruling government as a way to block counterrevolutionary actions during the French Revolution
Napoleon (1769-1821), claimed himself Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814
Latin American Revolutions (1808-1826) wars against European colonial rule that led to the independence of the Latin American state
Creole Full blooded Spaniard who had been born in Latin America
Peninsulare Full blooded Spaniard born in Spain
Mulatto mixed African and European heritage
Mestizo mixed Spanish and Native American
geocentric earth as a center
Logic reason or sound judgmentntellectual or spiritual understanding or revelation
Created by: WIMS
 

 



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