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2C Colonial America

Events and Ideas of the Colonial Era

What was Jamestown? First permanent English settlement in North America, founded in 1607
Why was Jamestown important? Jamestown was created to make money; it was successful using slave labor to grow tobacco
What was the Mayflower Compact? Written agreement outlining how the Pilgrims would govern themselves in 1620
Why was the Mayflower Compact important? Example of early self-government in the colonies
What is the difference between exploration and colonization? Exploration - Explorers go home eventually Colonization - Colonizers stay
Why did Europeans EXPLORE the Americas? Gold, God, Glory - Spread Christianity; find wealth; and, national pride
Why did Europeans COLONIZE the Americas? Two reasons - mercantilism and to escape religious persecution
What is mercantilism? Taking the resources of the American colonies and using them to get rich.
What is "representative government?" Republicanism - the idea that people elect their own leaders
Why did Representative Government grow so quickly in the American colonies? 1. The British king was too far away to govern effectively. 2. The English had a tradition of elected leadership in Parliament.
What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? First written constitution in the colonies.
What was the Virginia House of Burgesses? First representative assembly in the American colonies.
Were all African Americans in the colonies slaves? No.
Describe the lives of enslaved African Americans in the colonies. No political rights; considered property; essential labor for the plantation economies in the south
Describe the lives of FREE African Americans in the colonies. No political rights; low-wage earners; limited access to education; socially isolated
Describe the physical geography of the New England region? Subsistence farming; poor soil; cold climate; forest; natural harbors
Describe the physical geography of the Middle Colonies. Rich soil, deep rivers; natural ports; mild winters; river valleys
Describe the physical geography of the Southern Colonies. Navigable rivers; rich soil; warm climate - long growing season; natural harbors
How did physical geography affect economic development in the three colonial regions? New England - small farms, fishing and shipping; Middle Colonies grew food; Southern colonies - slaves on plantations & cash crops
How did the physical environment influence population growth in the colonies? In the New England and Middle colonies, people lived near waterways; in the South, people were spread out on plantations
How were French and English colonists different? The English were farmers; the French were fur trappers and traders.
Why did the plantation system develop in the South? Physical environment was perfect for growing cash crops
How did slavery start in the Americas? Slaves were first brought to the Americas to provide labor on sugar plantations in the British West Indies.
What was Triangular Trade? Refers to the exchange of goods (cash crops) for slaves between England, West Africa and the Americas.
Why did the numbers of slaves in the Americas grow over time? The demand for cash crops was enormous and more labor was needed to meet this demand.
What were the Puritan beliefs about religion and government? Believed in state-sponsored religion; that is, no separation of religion and government
What was the First Great Awakening? Period where people began to embrace religion more enthusiastically in response to revivalist preachers.