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AK Studies-History

Study activities in preparation for Alaska Studies History Final Exam

Someone or something that was there when the event or time period occurred Primary Source
Someone or something that was NOT there when the event or time period occurred Secondary Source
A process of economic expansion and contraction that occurs repeatedly Boom and Bust
Worth money; has great meaning Valuable
To be able to reach or enter Accessible
Something or someone that encourages you to do something Incentive
The act of protecting, caring for, preserving Conservation
Something that comes from nature and is valuable to humans Natural resources
Using something or someone unfairly for my benefit Exploitation
The process of growth and expansion Development
Saving someone or something from harm, injury or suffering Protection
A substance of value to humans that can be replenished or replaced Renewable natural resources
A substance of value to humans that CANNOT be replenished or replaced Non-renewable natural resources
Who was Peter the Great? Czar of Russia
What did Peter the Great hope to accomplish by commissioning Vitus Bering? Determine whether or not Russia and Alaska were connected by land.
What in Alaska was of primary interest to the Russians? Furs – Sea Otters
What was considered “soft gold” by the Russians? Sea Otter Furs
Who was sent by the Russian Fur Company to manage the colony on Kodiak? Alexsandr Baranov
When did the United States purchase Alaska from Russia? 1867
How much was the purchase price for Alaska? $7.2 Million
How much was the purchase price per acre? Approximately 2.5 cents per acres
What historical event was going on in the United States that delayed the purchase of Alaska? American Civil War
Why was Alaska called “Seward’s Folly”? Some people thought was ridiculous to purchase Alaska because it was so far away and was so cold.
What is a U.S. “Colony”? An area under the full or partial political control of a country
Why did Alaska become an important place for whaling during this time period in Alaska History? Whalers had depleted whales in many other places south of Alaska
What was the name given to the area where gold was found in the Yukon? Klondike
What town sprang up at the juncture of the Klondike and the Yukon River? Dawson City
How did Seattle play an important role during the Gold Rush? Seattle became one of the primary starting points (along with Portland and San Francisco) for people journeying to the Klondike
What is a “sourdough”? A nickname for someone who had spent an entire winter in the north
What is a “cheechako”? A nickname for a newcomer, a tenderfoot, a greenhorn.
What’s a sluice-box? Device used to separate gold from dirt and rocks
How much supplies did one need to go to the Klondike? 1000 pounds of food
Who was Robert Service? Poet
Where was Robert Service born? England
Where in Alaska did major gold discoveries occur after the Klondike Gold Rush? Nome and Fairbanks
What mineral was discovered at Kennecott Mine? Copper
What brought about the early non-native settlement of Anchorage? Construction of the Alaska Railroad
When non-native explorers first showed up in the Anchorage area, what native peoples did they encounter? De'naina
Where in Anchorage did this early settlement begin? Ship Creek
Who built the Alaska Railroad? U.S. Government
The Japanese were successful in capturing what two Alaska islands? Attu and Kiska
Why circumstances made it so difficult to capture the Japanese soldiers and re-take Attu and Kiska? Fog, wind, rain, terrain
What was the name of the highway that was built from Dawson Creek to Big Delta during World War II? Alaska Canadian Highway (Al-Can)
What happened to Alaskans of Japanese descent during World War II? They were sent to internment camps in the Lower 48.
Where did the Alaska State Constitutional Convention meet? In Fairbanks at the College of Mines (University of Alaska Fairbanks)
Why did the Alaska State Constitutional Convention delegates meet in Fairbanks? Away from the capital (Juneau) and away from lobbyists
How many delegates attended the Alaska State Constitutional Convention? 55
What was the Alaska Tennessee Plan? A statewide election to vote for two U.S. Senators and one U.S. House of Representative to go to Washington, D.C. to lobby for Statehood
When did Alaska become a state? 1959
List the three branches of the Alaska State Government. Executive, Legislative, Judicial
What is the name of our current Senior United States Senator from Alaska? Lisa Murkowski
What is the name of our current junior United States Senator from Alaska? Dan Sullivan
What is the name of our current Representative in the United States House of Representatives from Alaska? Don Young
What is the location in Alaska of the largest oil field ever discovered in the United States? Prudhoe Bay
Alaska Native Land Claims had been discussed in Alaska and the U.S. Congress for many years, what finally “forced the issue” in the late 60s/early 70s? Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez
What was ANCSA? Federal legislation that addressed Alaska Native Land Claims in Alaska.
What does acronym ANCSA stand for? Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
How much land was returned to Alaska Natives/Indians according to ANCSA? 44 million acres
What percentage of Alaska land was returned to Alaska Natives/Indians as part of ANCSA? 11%
How many Alaska Native Regional Corporations were established in ANCSA? 12
What was the 13th Alaska Native Regional Corporation? Formed after 1971 to include those Alaska Natives/Indians that no longer lived in Alaska
What was the primary goal of Alaska Native Regional Corporations according to ANCSA? To provide for long term investment and management of money and land on behalf of shareholders.
What qualifications were required to be considered an Alaska Native/Indian under ANCSA? Must be ¼ Alaska Native/Indian
What does the acronym ANILCA stand for? Alaska National Interest Land Claims Act
What was the purpose of ANILCA? To preserve lands in Alaska for future Americans
What percentage of land in Alaska is owned by the federal government? 60%
What percentage of land in Alaska is owned by the State of Alaska? 28%
What percentage of land in Alaska is owned by Alaska Native Corporations? 11%
What percentage of land in Alaska is owned by private individuals? Less than 1%
Who created the Permanent Fund? Governor Jay Hammond , Constitutional Amendment, vote of people
What was the reason for forming the Permanent Fund Dividend? To make a permanent savings account
What is the current balance of the Permanent Fund? Approximately $55.5 billion
How much of the State’s oil money goes in to the Permanent Fund? A minimum of 25%
What happens to the money from the oil that goes into the Permanent Fund? Invested by the Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation
What is the “principal” of the Alaska Permanent Fund? The amount of money placed in the Alaska Permanent Fund from the money the state earns from resource development.
Who can spend the "principal" of the Alaska Permanent Fund? No one according to the Alaska Constitution
What happens to the earnings from the investments? The earnings can be spent by the Alaska State Legislature
Who manages the Permanent Fund? Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation
How is the fund invested? Diverse – stocks, bonds, real estate
Explain inflation proofing. Interest monies from the Permanent Fund are put back into the Fund according to the amount of inflation for the previous year. This inflation proofing makes sure that the principal never loses value.
Why has the Permanent Fund been successful as a savings account? Because no one can touch the principal!!
Who is considered the “Father” of the Dividend? Jay Hammond
What was the name of the tanker that went aground near Valdez in 1989? Exxon Valdez
Created by: Benson_Deborah