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Biology Ch.9.2 Terms

The Mammalian Circulatory System

TermDefinition
Cardiac Circulation The route taken by the blood within the heart.
Pulmonary Circulation The pathway of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
Systemic Circulation The route from the heart to the rest of the body.
Function of Arteries Carry blood away from the heart. Blood is oxygenated, and at high pressure.
Elasticity Allows artery to expand as blood passes through and then snap back into place. Allows blood to flow in the right direction.
Muscle Helps this 'pumping motion', to push blood through other vessels in the right direction.
Smooth Inner Layer Reduces friction, allowing blood to flow easily.
Function of Veins Carry waste-rich blood towards the heart. Blood is at a very low pressure; de-oxygenated. Must somehow counteract the effects of gravity.
One-way valves Prevent the blood from flowing backward. Rely on contractions of other body muscles in order to assist in the flow of blood below the heart.
Function of Capillaries Regulate the movement of fluids and other materials into and out of the blood stream. Also involved in the regulation of heat.
Red Blood Cells Called Enthrocytes. Small. Disk shaped. No nucleus. They contain about 280 million molecules of the pigment hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin Respiratory pigment. Contains iron.
RBC Life Span Life span is 3-4 months. Dead RBC's are carried to the liver where the iron from the hemoglobin is recycled. A healthy body produces up to 1-2 million RBC's per second. RBC's are made in the bone marrow.
White Blood Cells Called leucocytes. Primarily function in the immunity and fighting infection. Have nuclei. Appear colourless. Larger than RBCs. 1% of total blood volume.
Platelets Not cells! They are fragments of cells! No nucleus. Life span of only 7-10 days. Important role in the clotting of blood.
Plasma Fluid portion of the blood. Contains dissolved proteins. Fibrinogen=clotting. Helps in the transport of carbon dioxide. Also transports nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, antibodies and waste materials.
Functions of Blood Distribution of materials (nutrients, glucose, amino acids) to the liver for storage. Removes wastes. Convey hormones from origin to destination.
Created by: Inkina