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Early Republic

8th gd Early Republic

TermDescription
Anti-Federalist Opposed approval of the new Constitution; George Mason, Patrick Henry; feared strong central government
Bill of Rights 1st ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution; protect rights of the individual
Constitution Written plan of government; listed powers & structure of new national government
Checks & Balances Each branch of government has several ways to stop or “check” the other branches
Federalism The national (federal) and state governments share power
Federalist Papers Essays by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay & James Madison that helped persuade Americans to approve the new constitution
Foreign Policy Strategies, procedures & practices that protect & reflect a country’s interests in international relations
Limited Government Powers of government are limited; the people give the government only certain powers
Marbury v. Madison Marshall court established the principle of judicial review- strengthened power of the judiciary to interpret Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland Identified the “necessary & proper” or elastic clause – gives Congress powers needed to carry out powers listed in Constitution
National Bank Place to deposit taxes, provide sound currency, make loans to national government; proposed by Hamilton
Philadelphia Convention Also known as Constitutional Convention; 1787- addressed problems in Articles of Confederation; resulted in new constitution
Popular Sovereignty Authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of the people
Protective Tariff Tax or fee on imported goods; protects domestic economy
Republicanism A state where supreme power is held by the people & their elected representatives, with an elected or nominated president
Separation of Powers Government power divided into 3 strong branches: executive, judicial & legislative
3/5 Compromise Answers how slaves should be counted for purpose of representation; 5 slaves = 3 persons
War of 1812 Fought against the British; cause – forced impressment of soldiers; U.S. preserved its independence
Washington’s Farewell Address Warned against the rise of political parties & the challenges of foreign affairs
Precedent An example set by a leader for others to follow
neutrality Policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between other countries
Alien & Sedition Acts Laws passed by Federalists expelling foreigners & forbidding criticism of President (Adams); first challenge to the 1st Amendment
XYZ Affair French attempt to bribe U.S. (pay tribute)
impressment To kidnap at sea & “press” (force) into service for enemy’s navy
cabinet Group of officials who lead departments and advise the President
Whiskey Rebellion Pres.Washington sends troops when farmers refuse to pay taxes; first test of the new governmen
Alexander Hamilton Federalist who supported a strong central government; Created the Bank of the U.S.
Monroe Doctrine Policy that the U.S. would defend the western hemisphere; that it was closed to European colonization
Created by: jennscott