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US History

semester 1 US History review

TermDefinition
Lusitania a German U-boat sinks the British passenger liner, the Lusitania, off the coast of Ireland
Red Scare fear of communism in the US
Sacco and Vanzetti two men were found guilty and put to death for murder, known anarchists
Great Migration a great movement of African Americans from the rural south to the industrial north after WW1
Harlem Renaissance emphasis on black culture resulting in an artistic and literary movement
What was the Zimmerman Telegram? -German foreign minister Andrew Zimmerman sends a telegram to Mexico proposing an alliance with Mexico in the chance that the US joins the war -Wilson (Woodrow) declares war on April 6th, 1917
What were the purposes of war bonds? -help finance the war -by buying Liberty Bonds, Americans were loaning the government money
What was Wilson's 14 Points? What was its purpose? -general goals for post World War -"peace without victory" -peace inspired by noble ideals, not agreed and vengeance
What was the purpose of the League of Nations? -point 14 of Wilson's 14 Points establishes a league of nations to try to maintain world peace -to prevent another world war from happening -countries could gather and peacefully resolve their issues/quarrels
What was the impact of the War Guilt Clause? -war guilt clause=reparations (money) -war is blamed on Germany so they had to pay reparations
What changes occurred for women in the 1920's? -new women of the 1920's were very liberated -more makeup, assumed she had the same rights as men -many women wanted more control over their lives and they got it
Identify America's stance on immigration in the 1920's: what groups were excluded? -Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924 establish a quota system to govern immigration -restricted immigrants from countries such as Italy, Russia, and China
What was the Sacco and Vanzetti trial? Why was it important? -caused even more fear and suspicion of minorities -convictions were more based on political beliefs and ethnicity more so than actual evidence
What were some effects of prohibition? -bootleggers: sold illegal alcohol to consumers -speakeasies (secret bars) attracted customers in big cities -promoted organized crime
How did the radio change in the 1920's? -millions of radios and phonographs were marketed in 1920's -allowed people to share similar popular culture
Who created and popularized jazz? -Harlem was a hotspot -African American musicians blended musical styles -Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith
19th amendment gave women right to vote
18th amendment established prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the US by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol illegal
Prohibition nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages
Square Deal reform proposals designed by Teddy Roosevelt that aimed to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners
Muckraker socially conscious journalists and writers who exposed the negative parts of society to the public
Initiative gave people the power to put a proposed law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting citizens' signatures on a petition
Recall gives voters the power to remove public servants from office before their terms ended
Referendum allows citizens to approve or reject laws passed by a legislature
Identify progressive groups in the 1800s -National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) -Anti-Defamation League: formed in 1913 to protect Jewish families
What was the purpose of initiatives, referendums, and recalls for people during the Progressive Era? -progressives wanted to make sure that elected officials would follow citizens' wishes -gave citizens power and a say as to what elected officials were doing
The Temperance Movement wanted Prohibition because... -members of temperance movement felt that alcohol often led men to spend their money on liquor, neglect their families, and abuse their wives -keep families safe and healthy
Progressives thought the role of government was to... -serve the people -progressives wanted to give more people control over government -Temperance Movement was led by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Who was involved in the Suffragist Movement? -suffrage: the right to vote -National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA):suffragette group -Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Identify Theodore Roosevelt's stance on big business -should be heavily monitored by federal government -believed in trust-busting and breaking up monopolies -to protect small business owners
Nationalism feelings of loyalty and devotion to one's nation
Imperialism policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories
Yellow Journalism sensational headlines and pictures that exaggerated the truth
USS Maine Battleship Maine to Havana Harbor to protect American citizens and property due to rioting. Maine was rocked by an explosion killing 260 Americans
Platt Amendment US has the "right to intervene" to preserve Cuba
What role did Hearst & Pulitzer in the Spanish American War? They were yellow journalists and helped leak the De Lome letter which fueled President McKinley's decision to declare war on Spain
What were the goals/reasons for imperialism? -economic benefits: desire for raw materials and natural resources -military strength: believed in having a strong navy and establishing foreign naval bases -national superiority
What were the immediate causes of the Spanish American War? 1. Yellow Journalism 2. De Lome Letter 3. Sinking of the USS Maine 4. Investments in Cuba
What were the countries imperialized/controlled by the US in the early 1900s? Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines Still had interest in Cuba
Identify Teddy Roosevelt's famous quote about diplomacy in the early 1900s. What does it mean? "Speak softly and carry a big stick" Means foreign negotiations were backed with the threat of military force
Blacklist companies didn't hire workers who belonged to unions, putting out negative info on you so no other company would hire you
Interstate Commerce Act regulated American railroads that went across state lines, couldn't make laws or central railroads transactions
Sherman Anti-Trust Act outlawed trusts that restricted trade, often used in the favor of corporations who would argue that labor unions restricted trade
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire devastating factory fire in NY where hundreds of workers were killed and prompted many safety regulations to be put in place
What was the role of trusts? -groups of companies that worked together to stop competition -companies assign their stock to a board of trustees who combine them into a new organization
Effects of Farm Mechanization -other crops became cash crops instead of just cotton - allowed farmers to move out west, could grow more crops in more places -invention of the steel plow and groundwater wells
Innovations During the Industrial Revolution -Thomas Edison and his team create the electric light bulb -new methods of transportation: electric streetcars, commuter trains, subways, cars (1902), planes (1st flight in 1903)
Factory System and Assembly Line -factory system led to mass production -assembly line: at each step, a worker would add a specific part to whatever was being produced -increased productivity
Labor Unions -Labor Unions: a group of workers who are organized for the purpose of gaining better wages, hours and benefits -American Federation of Labor and Knights of Labor
Settlement Houses community center that provided social services to the urban poor
Jane Addams leading figure in the settlement house movement
Chinese Exclusion Act May 8, 1882, the US passes the Chinese Exclusion Act which banned the immigration of Chinese into America
Urban Areas -mostly immigrant people -tenements: low cost, multi family housing designed to squeeze in as many families as possible -living conditions: usually very poor -employment: low-paying factory jobs in big cities -
Asian Immigrants -Chinese immigrants were processed on Angel Island (San Fransisco Bay) -men and women would be split up while they waited to be processed -physical examination in order to check for diseases
Immigrants -went through Ellis Island (in NY) -workers believed America was a melting pot -to enter had to be wealthy or have a skill
Populist Movement -Populist Party seeking to advance interest of farmers and laborers -"People's Party" -increase in money supply
Political Bosses -Boss Tweed: a powerful figure in Tammany Hall- New York City's Democratic political machine -which openly bought votes, encouraged judicial corruption, extracted millions from city contracts, and dominated NYC politics
Created by: moo_30