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IOA4 WGU History

QuestionAnswer
Olmecs Gulf Coast
Pawnee Nebraska / Platte River area
Cherokee Southeast US, N. and S. Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee (Trail of Tears)
Mayans Southern Mexico, Yucatan
Inca Peru, Chile
Aztec Mexico
Nez Perce Idaho, Oregon
Christopher Columbus Funded by Queen Isabella of Spain. Sailed to the New World with the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria. Landed in San Salvador (mistook it for the Indies). Explored Cuba also.
Hernan Cortez Sailed from Cuba to Mexico and conquered the Aztec empire in 1591. Founded Vera Cruz.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa Discovered the Pacific Ocean and crossed Isthmus of Panama.
Ferdinand Magellan Sailed on a 3 year voyage around the world.
Francisco Pizarro Brutally overtook the Inca in Peru and established Lima, Peru.
Hernando de Soto Traveled from Florida to the Carolinas and on westward to the Mississippi River.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Traveled from northern Kansas to west of the Grand Canyon in search of mythical "Seven Cities of Gold".
Encomienda Used to oppress Native Americans by Spanish "Conquistadors" (soldiers) who were granted trusteeship over indigenous people. Conquistadors were known as encomiendas and they seized the land, increased taxes and forced natives into slavery.
Conquistadors Seized land from Native Americans, increased taxes and forced natives into slavery.
Requerimiento Document that threatened to enslave the Native Americans if Spanish demands were not met.
Black Legend Used to describe Spaniards oppression of Native Americans.
The Great Migration Resulted from the persecution of the Puritans in the 1630s.
Toleration Act Freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus.
Treaty of Tordesillas Divided land between Spain and Portugal.
Cabot Explored the East Coast of North America
Da Gama Sailed around Africa to India. Opened first all water trade route between Europe and Asia.
Verrazonno First European to sight New York.
Polo Inspired Columbus with descriptions of the Far East.
Jamestown 1607, Chesapeake Bay area in Virginia. Captain John Smith lead colony. John Rolf married Pocahontas. Colony failed because of food shortage, Indian attacks, malaria and other diseases, distracted by gold digging, etc.
William Bradford First governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod.
Roger Williams Founded Rhode Island in 1636
William Penn Founded Pennsylvania for the Quakers.
New England Puritan settlement. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut. Bay colony that relied on fishing, whaling and fur trade. Boston is the major trading center.
Mid-Atlantic Region Virginia, Maryland (rural), agricultural economy of tobacco and cotton. Slavery. Exchanged products with England. Ties to England kept strong by the upper class.
Southern Region North and South Carolina and Georgia. Agricultural economy of rice, cotton and tobacco. Slavery. Wealthy plantations dominated. Charleston is the major port. Ties with England remained strong because trading continued.
Sugar Act 1764. Great Britain taxed colonies on sugar, molasses, wine and cloth.
Stamp Act 1765. Required an official stamp on all documents. John Adams said "The pot is set to boil."
Tea Act 1773. Allows the British East India tea company to sell tea to colonies without paying taxes. Britain was attempting to bail out the almost bankrupt company, but this angered colonists. Resulted in Boston Tea Party.
Declaratory Act Asserted British government the right to impose taxes.
Townshend Act 1767. Duty tax, search and seizure.
Quartering Act 1765. Used by the British forces in the American colonies to ensure that British troops had adequate housing and provisions.
Boston Massacre 1770. Six colonists were shot in Boston during a scuffle between colonists and British troops.
Trail of Tears 1838. Government forced 15,000 Cherokee to leave Georgia for Oklahoma and they suffered at least 4000 casualties on the way.
Manifest Destiny The belief that the United States had a divine mission to expand and spread democracy and freedom.
The Louisiana Purchase US bought New Orleans from France and added 300mil acres to the nation. Largest addition to the U.S. Defined by Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819.
The Annexation of Texas 1836. Colonists of TX secured independence from Mexico. In 1845 the bill to approve TX joining the union was approved.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo At the end of the Mexican War in l848 the United States acquired the territory that now comprises New Mexico, Arizona, California, and parts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada. Mexico also formally acknowledged that Texas was part of the United States.
Gadsden Purchase US purchased the southern strip that is now the southern border of AZ and NM from Mexico in 1853. James Gadsden represented the US in negotiations.
Alaska In 1867 the US purchased this state from Russia for $7.2mil largely due to efforts from William Seward. Became the 49th state in 1959.
Hawaii President McKinley supported annexation. Added to US in 1898 and became 50th state in 1959.
The North during Slavery Industrial economy, opposed slavery.
The South during Slavery Agricultural economy that relied on slavery.
Compromise of 1850 Series of bills aimed at resolving the territorial and slavery controversies arisen from the Mexican-American War. CA admitted as free state.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854. Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruled that slave owners could take their private property into free territory.
John Brown In the fall of 1859, the movement resulted in open rebellion when he carried out a raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA.
Anti-slavery Movement 1861. Northerners were not willing to compromise again and southerners were determined to prevent any limits on slavery. The secession movement was fueled by fear that Lincoln would introduce legislation to curtail slavery.
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln published this document in 1863, ending slavery in the rebelling states.
Post World War I The economy of the United States continued to expand and grow at unprecedented rates.
Stock Market Crash October 1929. Caused by many consumers and businesses becoming overextended on credit. By end of 1929 more than $25bil in wealth had disappeared.
Franklin Roosevelt Elected president in 1932. Addressed Great Depression with the New Deal. Proposed legislation to boost business growth and to assist people. Created many programs that put people to work.
Social Security Act 1935. Created a safety net for people by providing unemployment insurance, pensions for people over 65 and benefits for the elderly and disabled.
Thomas Jefferson Commissioned Lewis and Clark. Signed Louisiana Purchase.
Abraham Lincoln President during Civil War. Ended slavery.
Kennedy President during inception of Space Program, civil rights and Vietnam War
Nixon President during Watergate scandal. Created diplomatic opening to China.
Reagan Ended Cold War.
Eisenhower General during World War II.
Wilson President during World War II.
World War I When this war broke out in 1914 the U.S. wanted to remain neutral but public and official sentiment sided with France and England.
World War II U.S. didn't enter this war for several years but was forced into the war by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Beginning in 1939 the U.S. had worked to aid England and France by providing war materials.
Cold War 1945-1990. Four decade battle between U.S. and Russia to determine which country would dominate and be the most powerful country in the world.
Relief Map Demonstrates the contour of the subject area either with contour lines or shaded areas to indicate elevation.
Climate Map Use contour lines or shading to demonstrate long-term weather conditions.
Political Map Use lines and/or colors to demonstrate the boundaries of political entities.
Topographical Map Use lines and colors to demonstrate elevation and shapes of landforms to illustrate three-dimensional shapes in two dimensions. Lines that are close together illustrate steep inclines while lines that are far apart illustrate relatively flat terrain.
Physical Map Use colors, lines, symbols, tints and shading to demonstrate characteristics of the subject area. Often include roads and other artificial objects.
Gerard Mercator Created first projection map in the 16th century. Projected the parallels of latitude growing further apart as they left the equator. This preserved the shape of the globe, however it distorted the size of masses. Distortion most pronounced near poles.
Conic Projections Introduced in 20th century. Superimposing a cone on the globe, projecting the surface features on a flat map with the parallels as arcs of circles with the poles at the center.
Equal-Area Projection The most useful projection maps today employ this that use horizontal parallels. These maps are more easily understood than conical projections, they offer a familiar perspective and capture true orientations and shapes.
Characteristics of Ecosystems Dynamic. Interaction among all living and non-living members. Self-sustaining. Biomes are mutually supportive.
Tundra Climate: cold temps; permafrost. Flora: absence of trees and tall plants. Shrubby vegetation's with roots that don't penetrate soil. Fauna: mosquitoes because of standing water.
Tropical Forest Climate: variable rainfall; wet & dry seasons; high amounts of light. Flora: high number of tree species. Fauna: unusually high number of species.
Desert Climate: water is a limiting factor; less than 30cm of rain annually; not necessarily hot, some are cold year round, others cold at night. Flora: succulents (cacti). Fauna: species that don't need water; nocturnal animals such as mice and snakes.
Grassland Climate: seasonal drought; periodic fires. Flora: grasses are the predominant vegetation; nutrients are stored underground. Fauna: birds, small rodents, grazing mammals like bison.
Savannah Climate: alternate rainy seasons with periods of drought; periodic fires. Flora: perennial grasses, flowering trees, fire adapted. Fauna: large herbivores (zebras) and their predators (lions) but predominant herbivores are insects.
Freshwater Biome Have <1% salt concentration. Organisms that live here are adapted for low-salt environment. Cover only a small area of the Earth's surface. Include standing bodies of water (swamps, ponds) and moving water (rivers, streams).
Marine Biome Has about 3% salt concentration. Found on about 75% of earth's surface.
The Mayan This civilization flourished in the rainforest of southern Mexico until about 900AD when climate began to change. Rainfall lessened; within a century many temples and cities were abandoned.
The Hohokam Moved into present day AZ just as climate began to get more arid. Responded by developing a complex and efficient system of irrigation canals. Capable of sustaining culture despite the desert conditions.
How does elevation affect climate? Earth is colder at higher elevations. Temperature drops 3.5 degrees F for each 1000 feet of altitude above sea level. Causes snow covered mountains in tropical areas.
How does latitude affect climate? As Earth rotates and tilts, some areas receive more direct rays from the sun. Regions in high latitudes (farther from equator) experience high variations and have distinct seasons. Low latitudes receive most direct rays and remain tropical year round.
Deforestation Destruction of large areas of forests, especially tropical rainforests, to clear-cutting by humans. Depletes habitats of many species of animals. Leads to erosion and poor air quality.
Global Warming Human use of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas has increased levels of carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere. Result is gradual increase in temperatures.
How does Energy Development affect the environment? Petroleum production can negatively affect areas by increasing human activity, road building and construction, and the use of hydrocarbons releases CO2 into the air contributing to Global Warming.
How does population growth affect the environment? Farm, construction, mining, and energy development increase due to this. The impact of waste disposal and human consumption dictate environmental changes.
How does physical geography impact the drawing of political lines? Nations seek easily identifiable features to set as boundaries and borders. Physical features, cultural areas and geometric lines dictate political boundaries.
Key factors in population growth... Natural resources, economic opportunity, political conditions, real estate pricing, climate.
Renewable Resources Can be successfully recycled: glass, aluminum and paper.
Non-Renewable Resources Cannot be recycled: raw petroleum, iron, copper, uranium...
Identify 3 Branches of Government Executive Branch, Legislative Branch, Judiciary Branch.
Executive Branch members President, Vice President (Leader of the Senate), Department heads that advise President on policy issues and help execute those policies.
Powers of the Executive Branch Approve/Veto bills; make treaties; grant pardons and reprieves; enforces laws; commissions officers to armed forces; head of state; appoints/removes cabinet members; legislative agenda setter.
Members of Legislative Branch Congress, which is made up of two houses: Senate and House of Representatives
Powers of Legislative Branch Coin money; maintain a military; declare war on other countries; regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
House of Representatives 435 total members, two 2-year terms, no term limits, 1 rep for every 620,000 people in each state. Start tax laws. Decides if government officials will go to trial. Has the power to impeach the president.
Senate 100 total members, 6 year term, no term limits, 2 per state. Confirm or disapprove treaties. Confirm/disapprove presidential appointments. Holds trial for gov. officials who commit crimes. Power to remove an official from office.
Judicial Branch Comprised of Supreme Court and Federal Courts.
Supreme Court Highest court in the country and has the judicial powers of the government.
Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 Gave judges appointments for life.
Stare decisis Means that courts should attempt to follow precedents set in previous cases.
Freedom of the Press 1st Amendment. Protects from censorship.
Marbury vs. Madison 1803. Judicial review, Marbury tried to get his appointment by forcing; Madison used the concept of judicial review - stating that it was unconstitutional to force appointments that are wrong.
Dred Scott case 1857. Slave sued for freedom based on the fact that he lived in a free state. Supreme Court denied his freedom and claimed that the MO Compromise was unconstitutional. Fueled the Civil War.
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896. Separate car act. Homer Plessy refused to leave the "white" car of the East Louisiana RR. Supreme Court upheld the separate but equal doctrine.
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954. Ended segregation in public schools.
Roe vs. Wade 1973. Ruled that a woman had the right to terminate her pregnancy.
Rosa Parks Sparked the Civil Rights movement by refusing to sit in the back of a segregated bus. Lead a boycott where African Americans refused to use public transportation.
Jackie Robinson Became first black Major League baseball player of the modern era, 1947.
Susan B. Anthony Dedicated her life to the women's suffrage movement. Her accomplishments paved the way for the passage of 19th Amendment in 1920 which gave women the right to vote.
Cesar Chavez Organized migrant workers throughout CA in 1960s. Led nationwide boycott against CA grape producers. Founded the Farm Workers Association.
Electoral College Comprised of all electors in U.S. Each state has as many electors and electoral votes as it has Senators and Representatives in Congress.
Three-Fifths Compromise Each slave would be counted as 3/5ths of a person during the yearly census.
Great Compromise Congress was broken up into the House of Representatives to satisfy the large states and the Senate to give equal representation for small states.
Commercial Compromise Congress could regulate commerce (trade) but could not make slave laws until after 1888; could not tax exports.
The Crisis Article written by W.E.B. Du Bois that urged soldiers to forget grievances and fight for democracy
Treaty of Versailles This document ended World War I.
Lusitania British liner carrying 128 American passengers whose sinking angered the American public
Sussex French liner whose sinking prompted the German government to pledge not to sink merchant vessels without warning
Created by: elibogh