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American History II Part 3

Cold War The political, military, cultural, and economic rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union that developed after the Second World War and lasted until the disintegration of the Soviet state after 1989.
containment Label used to describe the global anticommunist national security policies adopted by the United States
National Security Act of 1947 Reorganized the U.S. military forces within a new Department of Defense, and established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Established by treaty in 1949 to provide for the collective defense of noncommunist European and North American nations against possible aggression from the Soviet Union and to encourage political, economic, and social cooperation.
Supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific during the Second World War; leader of the occupation forces in the reconstruction of Japan; and head of UN forces during the Korean War General Douglas MacArthu
apartheid Legal system practiced in South Africa and based on elaborate rules of racial separation and subordination of blacks
In the postwar years, a list of people who could no longer work in the entertainment industry because of alleged contacts with communists blacklist
McCarthyism Public accusations of disloyalty made with little or no regard for actual evidence. Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy, these accusations and the scandal and harm they caused came to symbolize the most virulent form of anticommunism
Officially called the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, it provided veterans with college and job-training assistance, preferential treatment in hiring, and subsidized home loans, and was extended to Korean War veterans in 1952 GI Bill
Third World Less economically developed areas of the world, primarily the Middle East, Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
Policy that stated that the United States would use armed force to respond to imminent or actual communist aggression in the Middle East Eisenhower Doctrine
First Soviet satellite sent into orbit around the earth in 1957 Sputnik
flexible response Kennedy’s approach to the Cold War that aimed to provide a wide variety of military and nonmilitary methods to confront communist movements
Site of an ill-fated 1961 invasion of Cuba by a U.S.-trained force that attempted to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro Bay of Pigs
Brown v. Board of Education 1954 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously overruled the “separate but equal” doctrine and held that segregation in the public schools violated the principle of equal protection under the law
Political protest campaign mounted in 1955 to oppose the city’s policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The Supreme Court ultimately declared segregation on public transit unconstitutional Montgomery bus boycott
redlining Refusal by banks and loan associations to grant loans for homebuying and business expansion in neighborhoods that contained aging buildings, dense populations, and growing numbers of nonwhites
Activity that challenged legal segregation by demanding that blacks have the same access to public facilities as whites. These nonviolent demonstrations were staged at restaurants, bus and train stations, and other public places sit-in movement
freedom riders Members of interracial groups who traveled the South on buses to test a series of federal court decisions declaring segregation on buses and in waiting rooms to be unconstitutional
Program launched in 1990 to map all genetic material in the 24 human chromosomes. It sparked ongoing debate over potential consequences of genetic research and manipulation Human Genome Project
Created by: wjewell