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SOCY 122 Fall term

Definitions and names for the midterm exam

QuestionAnswer
Abstraction Mental process where ideas are formed by considering a variety of events, objects or ideas to determine their essential features rather than individual concrete properties. E.g. of this is Weber's pure type
Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer Culture and advertising have merged together. The assembly line nature of culture and the standardized products it produces is suited for advertising. Advertising is propaganda and offers the freedom to choose, but it's choosing more of the same.
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) Association of music writers, composers, and publishers who banded together to make sure that they received royalty payments for those who used their work.
Anomie State of normlessness caused by the change in social standards and values. Usually occurs in rapid periods of change.
App-dependent Gardner and Davis: People who solve problems by first looking at apps or technology rather than themselves or directly asking others. These people are risk-aversive and they are externally packaged in their personality.
App-enabled Gardner and Davis: Used to describe the ways in which digital media is enabling - particularly for routine tasks.Can broaden one's awareness to the world.
Matthew Arnold Defended "high culture" and an education system where emphasis was put on the most relevant issues to us and the world. Higher education should develop all sides of humanity and society.
Ascetic Protestantism Weber: classified certain protestant sects has a "this-worldly-asceticism" and rejecting the immediate enjoyments of life. Resulted from rational thinking and created a goal rational orientation to action which became the spirit to modern capitalism
Base Marx: People are born into certain relations of social production that are needed for the material forces of production. These relations of production are the base for political superstructure and social forms of consciousness
Beloit College Mindset List A list and summary of the cultural identity of the class entering higher education. It's published yearly and helps instructors relate and differentiate their own values with incoming students.
Allan Bloom American philosopher who believed that university should help students contemplate the permanent problems of humanity
Bourgeoisie In Marxist theory, it is the capitalist class that owns the means of production. Said to be digging their own grave for creating more proletariats.
Broadcast Music Incorporated Formed in 1939 in response to ASCAP's monopolistic/oligopolistic control. Broadened the type of music the public heard and created new taste for previously excluded music forms.
Calling (Beruf) When separating themselves from their natural condition, ascetic protestants believed they got callings through which they can glorify God. Weber believed this was the link between "this worldly asceticism" & modern capitalism.
John Calvin French theologian who believed religion to be a highly individual matter. Believed God was judgemental and that only the elect reached heaven, We should commit ourselves to a stoic life to show our committment for God.
Nicholas Carr American writer who believed society's growing dependence on technology is leading to a shift from a linear, contemplative, literary mind of print culture to a distracted, multi-tasking mind.
Manuel Castells He argues that social structure is intimately connected to microelectronic technology and networks. These networks shape how we think and thus, shape the political, economic, and social practices as a whole.
Class Associated with Marx, it had three features. 1) Determined by one's position in the social relations of production. 2) Member must also gain an awareness of their class and what that means for them. 3) class would cause a revolution.
Class Consciousness The developed awareness of one's position in the production process and their common interests. Brings together those who struggle in a certain class and believed by Marx to bring a revolution.
Class struggle Classes existed only in certain periods of history and the conflict and oppression of certain classes would eventually yield a revolution.
Collective representations The way (method) in which a group views itself, and its values in relation to others. Can be expressed in the form of flags, dress, customs etc... Term connects directly with social facts.
Commodification Process in capitalist societies where products become goods sold for only profit. Production of "new wants" results in artistic forms becoming standardized to appeal to a wide range of consumers.
Commodity Something sold in the market. Marx argus that it's the "elementary form" of capitalist production. Commodities exclude the social character of production sine it is based only on the properties of the commodity in the production process.
Communist League Formed in 1846, it commissioned Marx to write a manifesto about its aims regarding the misleading allegations on communism
Communist Manifesto Authored by Marx and published by the Educational society for workers in 1848 as a result of two conferences sponsored by the Communist League. Represented the League's ambitions and shows Marx's particular view of history.
Auguste Comte Initially Saint-Simon's student. He coined the term sociology. He was a positivist who believed sociology would deal with thought regarding humans association or the logic of that association.
Collective Conscience Durkheim believed that social order emerged from a mindset that predates individuals. This type of mindset is internalized through socialization and controls ones actions. Tends to endure but may change over time. Later called collective representations.
Consumer's Republic Used by Lizabeth Cohen for the mass consumer society in post WWII. It's where families moved to the suburbs to own their own homes and where mass consumption was seen as a responsibility.
Continuous Partial attention Recent cognitive tendency of short and constantly shifting focus. Related to Internet usage but extends elsewhere.
Cool Medium Presents information abstractly and requires information to be processed actively by the receiver who must fill in lacking details and detect the overall structure.
Craftsmanship The feeling of being engaged with work for intrinsic reasons. Controls the object of work, controls the work process, experiements and employs skills that show when work is done well. Lies beyond explainable knowledge and the result is self development
Culture Referred to tending natural growth, then a process of human training, then a general state of mind. It was then seen as a general state of intellectual development in society and then a general body of art. Now its a way of life (material, spiritual etc)
Culture Industry Adorno and Horkheimer argue that all culture products are mass produced commodities. They follow standardized formulae where the conclusion can eb anticipated. AKA "dialectic of the enlightenment," it lowers intellectual depth.
Deutend Verstehen Interpretive understanding; This is the goal of sociology as we need an interpretive understanding of social action in order to explain things.Brings macro and micro levels of human action to explain their motives.
Dialectic Concept of how change is created through internal contradictions. Using the dialectic, Hegel believed we could abolish all contradictions. Marx looks at the dialectic in labour in class divided societies. Dialectical contradiction creates a class struggle
Digitization projects Digitization of print text which has increased accessibility to the written word. Motivation for these projects can be purely commercial interests to making them accessible to a wider public and preserving them.
Emile Durkheim Considered the founder of sociology as a specific area of study. He dedicated his career to demonstrating sociology as an empirically based systematic study of society.
E-culture Social and technological phenomenon. Based on the effects of the Internet and information transmission and creation. Features include openness to create and access cultural forms, virtuality and real distance from subject. Visual information>conceptual
Economic determinism Perspective that the economy as a whole shapes the contradictions that will lead to revolution. Evidence is found in workers being laid off because of machines as the bourgeoise increase their profit. Falling consumer demand and overproduction.
Economic rationalism Weber argued that a particular economic rationalism led to modern capitalism. Relied on individuals discipline and controlled goal-rational action (using the most efficient means to an end).
Elective affinity In Weber's methodology, it represents a resonance(connection) between ascetic protestantism and the ethos of modern capitalism. (ascetic protestantism leads to goal rational action which leads to modern capitalism)
Electric age A period of time in the mid-twentieth century that McLuhan describes as the shift from the typographic and mechanical era. Involves new ways of communication. Results in a collective awareness that would make people more reflective and involved.
Enlightenment Time from the french philosophes to the French Revolution. FREEDO, MASTERY, AND PROGRESS. Against ignorance, and mysticism. Reason is used to spread freedom and understand the natural world better.
Everyday Stocks of Knowledge at hand Schutz: Personal knowledge one gets through interacting with the world from an EGOCENTRIC perspective using the natural attitude. Its used as an understanding of the world.
Federal Communications Commission Responsible for radio and TV licences. When TV came, major networks put les pressure on the FCC over radio licences. Led to the freeing of radio stations and a broadening of music that was played.
Adam Ferguson An Essay on the History of Civil Society: Concerned about the increasing division and simplification of labour that could lead to a decaying in a nations spirit.
Neil Gabler We live in a "celebrity society." We don't focus on what's important but what grabs our attention. Entertainment controls social life. Looks at Huxley to state that life is now a movie rather than looking at the what it means to be human.
Geist German noun used to refer to the spiritual, the intellect or the mind. Used by Hegel, Marx, and Weber.
Geisteswissenshaften Sciences of the mind/spirit/humanities. German sociology tends to distinguish between the natural sciences and the social sciences, saying that social sciences require a certain methodology rather than experimental method as in the social sciences.
Generation X Born between the 1960s and 1981. Followed the Baby Boom and had many obstacles. Time where birth control pill came, experience failures to open classroom, new math curricula, high divorce rates. Lower SAT scores but are well employed & educated.
Generation Z Born between 1996 to present, grew up in small families with less helicopter parenting. Exposed to ethnic diversity and are good problem-solvers. Good academically but addicted to technology with short attention spans. Grew up in times of different crises
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