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SOC CH 5 2020

Mr. Stickler's Sociology Ch. 5 Test Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "social interaction" mean/ relate to? This term relates to the process by which people act toward or respond to other people. It is the foundation for all relationships and and groups in society. (Pg. 119)
What does the term "social structure" mean? This term relates to the "complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and that organize & establish limits on people's behavior. (Pg. 119)
Give one (1) example of a "societal institution". 1.) The economy; 2.) politics; 3.) religion. (Pg. 119)
What is the difference between "ascribed status" and "achieved status"? "Ascribed status" relates to the social status a person has when they are born (i.e. it is granted to them at birth); "achieved status" relates to social status that a person earns through personal choice, merit, or direct effort. (Pg. 121)
What does the term "status" mean in relation to society? This term means "a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties." (Pg. 121)
What do Conflict Theorists believe about how social structure operates? Conflict Theorists believe that social structure helps determine social relations in a society & may be the source of inequality and injustice. (Pg. 120)
What did Karl Marx believe about how social structure operates? He believed that the organization of economic production was the most important structural aspect of society. In Capitalist societies, few people control the labor of many; the social structure creates a system of domination & subordination. (Pg. 120)
What does the term "stigma" mean/ relate to? This term means "any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance. (Pg. 121)
What is one (1) example of a "stigma"? One example of this is the uniform that convicted criminals wear in prison. It is a "stigma" that tells others they have done something wrong & should not be allowed outside of the prison's walls. (Pg. 121)
What does the term "master status" mean? Give one (1) example of this. This term means "the most important status a person occupies". One (1) example of this is belonging to the upper class because it influences many other areas of a person's life including health, education, & life opportunities. (Pg. 123)
What are "status symbols"? These are material signs that inform other people of a person's social status. (Pg. 123)
Give one (1) example of a "status symbol". One example of this is when a member of the upper class drives a Rolls-Royce. It signals to others that they belong to the upper class & can afford such things. (Pg. 123)
What does the term "role" mean in relation to society? This term refers to a "set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status". (Pg. 124)
Give one (1) example of a "role". An example of a "role" is if a person is employed as a carpenter (employee) who has been hired to remodel a kitchen for a family, they are not expected to sit down uninvited & join the family (their employer) for dinner. (Pg. 124)
What does the term "role expectation" mean, relate to? This refers to a group's or society's definition of the way a specific role ought to be played. (Pg. 124)
What is the difference between "role expectation" and "role performance? "Role expectation" refers to the way a social role ought to be played while "role performance" is the way a person actually plays a social role. (Pg. 124)
What does the term "role conflict" mean/ relate to? This term relates to a situation where incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time. (Pg. 125)
What does the term "social group" mean/relate to? Give one (1) example of a social group. This term relates to a situation where two (2) or more people interact frequently and share a common identity & a feeling of interdependence. One example is the family. (Pg. 125)
What is the difference between "primary" and a "secondary" groups? "Primary groups" are small, less specialized groups in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions; "secondary groups" are larger & more specialized with more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships. (Pg. 128)
What is one (1) example of a "social institution"? 1.) Family; 2.) religion; 3.) education; 4.) the economy; 5.) the government or politics. (Pg. 129)
What are the characteristics of "hunting & gathering" societies? They use simple technology for hunting animals & gathering vegetation. (Pg. 133)
What are the characteristics of "horticultural & pastoral societies"? They use technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food. (Pg. 134)
What are the characteristics of "agrarian societies"? They use technology that supports large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows & equipment to produce their food supply. (Pg. 1340
What are the characteristics of "industrial societies"? These societies use technology that mechanizes production (for example, using assembly lines to quickly produce a large quantity of items). (Pg. 135)
What are the characteristics of "preindustrial societies"? These societies use technology that supports a service and information - based economy. (Pg. 136)
Social theorist Emile Durkheim coined the term "mechanical solidarity". What does this term mean/ relate to? This term refers to the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor & people feel united by shared values & common social bonds. (Pg. 137)
What does the term "Gemeinschaft" mean/ relate to? This term relates to a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship & kinship & on intergenerational stability. (Pg. 138)
What does the term "Gesellschaft" mean, relate to? This term relates to large urban societies in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values. (Pg. 138)
What does the term "self - fulfilling prophecy" mean/ relate to? This term means "a false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true". (Pg. 141)
What is "impression management" (aka presentation of self) relate to? This term relates to people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image. (Pg. 143)
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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