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Mr. Stickler's US HIST "Urbanization" Unit Test Flashcards 2020

What does the term "Ellis Island" mean/ relate to? This term relates to the facility where European immigrants were processed before they were allowed to enter the United States. The facility was located in New York Harbor. (Pg. 215)
Who was Jacob Riis? He was a Jewish social reformer who took pictures of the terrible conditions that European immigrants were living in. He took pictures in cities like New York & Chicago. He then fought to improve their situation.
What was "Angel Island"? This was the facility (located in San Francisco, California) where Asian immigrants were housed beginning in January 1910. This was similar to Ellis Island.
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882? This Act of Congress stated that no Chinese immigrants would be allowed into the United States. It also prevented Chinese immigrants who were already living here from becoming citizens for 10 years.
What does the term "nativism" mean/relate to? This term means "an extreme dislike of immigrants by native - born people".
What was the name of the first anti - immigrant organization? *(HINT: It was formed in 1887.) The American Protective Association was the first organization such as this that was formed. It was an anti - Catholic organization.
Who was Louis Sullivan? (HINT: We learned about him in the first nearpod lesson we had in this unit.) He was famous for designing skyscrapers in the city of Chicago in the late 1880's.
Where did most European immigrants who arrived in the late 1800's end up due to their financial situation? Most immigrants ended up living in poverty in large cities. They usually worked ". . . long hours for little pay in the rapidly expanding factories of the United States."
What were the three (3) social classes that we learned about in this unit. 1.) "High Society"/ Upper Class; 2.) the Middle Class; 3.) the Working Class.
What were "tenements"? These were very small apartments where up to 11 people might be living at a time. These were located in large cities and housed mainly middle class or working class immigrant workers.
What is one (1) characteristic of the wealthiest people who lived in the United States in the late 1800's? 1.) They lived in very large homes in fashionable districts in the heart of cities; 2.) Most of them hired a staff of cooks, maids, butlers, and coachmen.
What were "political machines"? These were informal political organizations designed to gain and keep power. They came about because cities had grown much faster than their governments.
Who was William "Boss" Tweed? He was the leader of the Democratic political machine called Tammany Hall in New York City in the 1860's. He was very corrupt, a trait that earned him a prison sentence in 1874.
Another term for "graft" is ________________________. Another term for this is "fraud".
Who was Herbert Spencer? He was a British Philosopher who applied Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society.
What does the term "Social Darwinism" mean/ relate to? This term states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving.
What was the "Gospel of Wealth"? This was an idea developed by Andrew Carnegie that said that wealthy Americans should engage in philanthropy (in other words, give to charities) and use some of their money to help the less fortunate.
What does the term "Realism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to an art and literature movement that began in the 1800's. Artists and writers simply tried to portray the world around them as it really is.
What were "settlement houses"? These were community centers where social reformers lived and offered services such as medical care, English classes, education to young children, and recreational programs for poor, immigrant neighborhoods.
Who was Jane Addams? She was a social reformer who opened a settlement house in Chicago - called Hull House - in 1889.
What does the term "Americanization" mean? This term relates to the process of teaching immigrant children English, American History, and American culture in public schools.
What were "cooperatives" (also called "co-ops")? These were organizations that tried to help struggling farmers in the mid-1800's. Their plan was to try to hold products (such as corn or soybeans) off the market to increase prices. That way, farmers would earn more money for their crops.
What was the "Grange"? This was a national organization created by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867 that was supposed to help struggling farmers. The group was actually called the Patrons of Husbandry.
What does the term Populism mean/refer to? This term refers to the political organization created by farmers and their interests in the mid - 1800's. The party was actually called the People's Party. They wanted to increase farmer's political power.
What is a "poll tax"? This is an amount of money that people had to pay in order to vote. The law was passed to try to prevent former slaves and African Americans from voting because they could not afford to pay the poll tax.
What were "Jim Crow Laws"? These were laws that kept African Americans in a position very similar to slavery. The "separate but equal" doctrine is an example of a "Jim Crow Law".
What did Booker T. Washington, the "most famous African American of the late 19th century", propose related to fighting segragation? He proposed that African Americans focus on achieving economic goals rather than political ones. He felt that African Americans should concentrate on preparing themselves educationally & vocationally.
Who was Ida B. Wells? She was a famous African American social reformer who launched a crusade against lynchings ("hangings without proper court proceedings").
What is a "graduated income tax"? This is a tax system that places higher taxes on people the more money that they earn.
What were conditions like in "tenements"? Conditions were cramped, dirty, and in crime - filled neighborhoods.
"Where did the wealthiest families establish themselves "during the last half of the 1800's? "in fashionable districts in the heart of the city."
How is William "Boss" Tweed related to Tammany Hall? He was the leader of the Democratic political machine in New York City. The political machine was called Tammany Hall.
What does the term "graduated income tax" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a tax system whereby people who earn more money are taxed at a higher rate."
What were "sharecroppers"? This was the name given to landless farmers who gave their landlords a large portion of their crops as rent, rather than paying cash.
What does the 13th Amendment state? This Amendment prohibits state's right to prevent people from voting based on their race, color, or condition of previous servitude".
In 1887, what did the Supreme Court set the stage for? The Supreme Court set the stage for legalized segregation when it overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
What was the Colored Farmers National Alliance? This was a group of African American and poor white farmers from the South who joined together to try to help them keep their farms.
What did Booker T. Washington propose? He proposed that African Americans focus on achieving economic goals rather than political ones.
What was the "subtreasury plan"? This was the plan that the Farmer's Alliance created to hold crops in silos & warehouses until they were scarce, then sell them at a higher price to help increase farmer's profits.
List two (2) facts that we learned about Jacob Riis in the nearpod lesson that we did. 1.) He was one of the first people to use "flash lamp photography"; 2.) He was a police reporter, which led him into poor, immigrant neighborhoods.
What was the result of the Supreme Court decision in the "Plessy vs. Ferguson" case? The result of this was the "separate but equal" doctrine that said it was okay to maintain separate facilities for white and African American citizens as long as the facilities were equal.
What did critics of "political machines" say about these organizations? Critics said that citizens did not have equal access to them because they did not always know where to vote & that members were criminals who took bribes.
What did supporters of "political machines" say about these organizations? Supporters of these organizations said at least citizens were getting services they needed and criminals were being dealt with.
What does the term "segregation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the separation of the races".
What were conditions like for many African Americans in the South after Reconstruction? Conditions for this group of people were barely better than slavery. They owned no property & gained little or no economic freedom as sharecroppers.
What are 2 reasons why railroads were so indispensable in the mid to late 1800's? 1.) They carried mail and newspapers to people in other parts of the U.S. quickly; 2.) They could get farmer's crops to markets in other parts of the U.S. before they rotted.
What did the Pacific Railway Act of 1862 do/provide for? This law provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad system to be built in the U.S.
Which two (2) railroad companies joined to build the transcontinental railroad in the late 1800's? The Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroads joined to build this.
Who was Grenville Dodge? He was the manager of the Union Pacific Railroad company in the late 1800's and was in charge of their transcontinental railroad construction project.
What were working conditions like in camps where Union Pacific Railroad workers lived while building the transcontinental railroad. Workers slept beside the railway or in rolling boarding cars. Camps were "rough and dirty" and were dangerous - filled with fighting, drinking, and gambling.
Who were the "Big Four" where railroad companies in the late 1800's is concerned? This was the nickname given to the group of four people who owned and operated the Central Pacific Railroad: Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, and Collis Huntington.
What group of people was hired to build the Central Pacific's portion of the transcontinental railroad? Chinese immigrants were hired to build this part of the transcontinental railroad.
Where did the two (2) railroads that made up the transcontinental railroad join and when? These railroads joined at Promontory Point, Utah in May, 1869
Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt? He was famous for consolidating smaller railroads into one large company in the 1800's. He also started construction of New York's Grand Central Station in 1871.
What is the relationship between railroads and the creation of time zones in the U.S.? Time zones were created in the U.S. to help prevent trains from crashing into each other. They also helped to coordinate schedules on passenger trains in different parts of the country.
List three (3) "downsides" to the railroad industry in the U.S. in the mid and late 1800's. 1.) Railroad companies exploited "incentive loans"; 2.) Racism among workers (ex: Chinese immigrants were forced to handle extremely volatile nitroglycerin); 3.) Some companies financed politician's and judge's careers, essentially bribing them.
Why did cities begin to grow so quickly in the late 1800's and early 1900's? This happened because immigrants who arrived did not have enough money to buy a farm as they had planned and they did not have the education they needed to get high paying jobs, to they moved to cities in large numbers.
What was the first skyscraper that was built and when was it built? The first of these built was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago and it was built in 1885.
List two (2) urban social problems that people faced in cities in the late 1800's. 1.) Crime - the murder rate tripled between 1880 and 1900; 2.) Pollution - Improper sewage disposal led to outbreaks of disease such as cholera and typhoid fever.
What were "greenbacks"? This was paper money that could be exchanged for gold or silver.
What were the 3 types of money that existed after the Civil War? 1.) Silver & gold; 2.) Greenbacks; 3.) National bank notes backed by government bonds.
What does the term "populism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a movement in the mid to late 1800's that sought to increase farmer's political power and to work for laws favoring their interests".
What does the term "deflation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "an increase in the value of money and a decrease in prices".
Who was Oliver H. Kelley? He founded the Patrons of Husbandry (also known as "The Grange") - the first farmer's organization - in 1867.
List two (2) reasons why Granges failed in the late 1800's. 1.) They were too small to be effective; 2.) Some states passed laws that set maximum prices for crops to oppose Granger policies.
What was the "People's Party"? This was the name of the political organization founded by the Kansas Farmer's Alliance in 1890.
What does the term "gross national product" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the total value of all goods and services produced by a country".
What two (2) things caused the U.S. GNP do grow 8 times its size between the end of the Civil War and 1914? 1.) An abundance of natural resources such as timber, coal, iron, & copper; 2.) A large workforce.
What caused the population in the U.S. to triple between 1860 and 1910? 1.) Larger families; 2.) A huge increase in the number of immigrants to the U.S.
What is the difference between Angel Island and Ellis Island? Ellis Island was where European immigrants first arrived in the U.S. and Angel Island was where immigrants from Asia went.
What does the term "entrepreneurs" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "people who risk their capital (i.e. money and wealth) in organizing and running a business".
What do "laissez faire" business practices rely on? This relies on "supply and demand rather than the government to regulate prices and wages".
Which states are considered "New England states"? Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
Why did New England states experience the fastest growth in the number of factories and railroad connections in the late 1800's? This occurred because this region had accumulated massive savings from trade, whaling, fishing, textile mills, and shoe manufacturing.
What struggle took place between northeastern and southern states in the early 1800's? Northern business leaders wanted higher taxes to protect American businesses & for the government to subsidize railroad building, southern states opposed gov. subsidies to railroads & wanted lower taxes to promote trade.
What is one (1) way that raising taxes backfired on the U.S. in the 1800's? One way this happened was that other countries also raised their taxes, which made it more difficult for U.S. manufacturers to sell their goods.
List two (2) inventions in the U.S. in the late 1800's. 1.) Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876; 2.) Thomas Alva Edison invented the phonograph in 1877.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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