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Mr. Stickler's HIST 11 "Urbanization" Unit Test Flashcards 2019

What does the term "Ellis Island" mean/ relate to? This term relates to the facility where European immigrants were processed before they were allowed to enter the United States. The facility was located in New York Harbor. (Pg. 215)
Who was Jacob Riis? He was a Jewish social reformer who took pictures of the terrible conditions that European immigrants were living in. He took pictures in cities like New York & Chicago. He then fought to improve their situation.
What was "Angel Island"? This was the facility (located in San Francisco, California) where Asian immigrants were housed beginning in January 1910. This was similar to Ellis Island.
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882? This Act of Congress stated that no Chinese immigrants would be allowed into the United States. It also prevented Chinese immigrants who were already living here from becoming citizens for 10 years.
What does the term "nativism" mean/relate to? This term means "an extreme dislike of immigrants by native - born people".
What was the name of the first anti - immigrant organization? *(HINT: It was formed in 1887.) The American Protective Association was the first organization such as this that was formed. It was an anti - Catholic organization.
Who was Louis Sullivan? (HINT: We learned about him in the first nearpod lesson we had in this unit.) He was famous for designing skyscrapers in the city of Chicago in the late 1880's.
Where did most European immigrants who arrived in the late 1800's end up due to their financial situation? Most immigrants ended up living in poverty in large cities. They usually worked ". . . long hours for little pay in the rapidly expanding factories of the United States."
What were the three (3) social classes that we learned about in this unit. 1.) "High Society"/ Upper Class; 2.) the Middle Class; 3.) the Working Class.
What were "tenements"? These were very small apartments where up to 11 people might be living at a time. These were located in large cities and housed mainly middle class or working class immigrant workers.
What is one (1) characteristic of the wealthiest people who lived in the United States in the late 1800's? 1.) They lived in very large homes in fashionable districts in the heart of cities; 2.) Most of them hired a staff of cooks, maids, butlers, and coachmen.
What were "political machines"? These were informal political organizations designed to gain and keep power. They came about because cities had grown much faster than their governments.
Who was William "Boss" Tweed? He was the leader of the Democratic political machine called Tammany Hall in New York City in the 1860's. He was very corrupt, a trait that earned him a prison sentence in 1874.
Another term for "graft" is ________________________. Another term for this is "fraud".
Who was Herbert Spencer? He was a British Philosopher who applied Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society.
What does the term "Social Darwinism" mean/ relate to? This term states that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving.
What was the "Gospel of Wealth"? This was an idea developed by Andrew Carnegie that said that wealthy Americans should engage in philanthropy (in other words, give to charities) and use some of their money to help the less fortunate.
What does the term "Realism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to an art and literature movement that began in the 1800's. Artists and writers simply tried to portray the world around them as it really is.
What were "settlement houses"? These were community centers where social reformers lived and offered services such as medical care, English classes, education to young children, and recreational programs for poor, immigrant neighborhoods.
Who was Jane Addams? She was a social reformer who opened a settlement house in Chicago - called Hull House - in 1889.
What does the term "Americanization" mean? This term relates to the process of teaching immigrant children English, American History, and American culture in public schools.
What were "cooperatives" (also called "co-ops")? These were organizations that tried to help struggling farmers in the mid-1800's. Their plan was to try to hold products (such as corn or soybeans) off the market to increase prices. That way, farmers would earn more money for their crops.
What was the "Grange"? This was a national organization created by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867 that was supposed to help struggling farmers. The group was actually called the Patrons of Husbandry.
What does the term Populism mean/refer to? This term refers to the political organization created by farmers and their interests in the mid - 1800's. The party was actually called the People's Party. They wanted to increase farmer's political power.
What is a "poll tax"? This is an amount of money that people had to pay in order to vote. The law was passed to try to prevent former slaves and African Americans from voting because they could not afford to pay the poll tax.
What were "Jim Crow Laws"? These were laws that kept African Americans in a position very similar to slavery. The "separate but equal" doctrine is an example of a "Jim Crow Law".
What did Booker T. Washington, the "most famous African American of the late 19th century", propose related to fighting segragation? He proposed that African Americans focus on achieving economic goals rather than political ones. He felt that African Americans should concentrate on preparing themselves educationally & vocationally.
Who was Ida B. Wells? She was a famous African American social reformer who launched a crusade against lynchings ("hangings without proper court proceedings).
What is a "graduated income tax"? This is a tax system that places higher taxes on people the more money that they earn.
What were conditions like in "tenements"? Conditions were cramped, dirty, and in crime - filled neighborhoods.
Complete the following sentence: "Where did the wealthiest families establish themselves "during the last half of the 1800's ___________________________________________." "in fashionable districts in the heart of the city."
How is William "Boss" Tweed related to Tammany Hall? He was the leader of the Democratic political machine in New York City. The political machine was called Tammany Hall.
What does the term "graduated income tax" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a tax system whereby people who earn more money are taxed at a higher rate."
What were "sharecroppers"? This was the name given to landless farmers who gave their landlords a large portion of their crops as rent, rather than paying cash.
What does the 13th Amendment state? This Amendment prohibits state's right to prevent people from voting based on their race, color, or condition of previous servitude". (SQR2 Notes: Ethan & Brent)
In 1887, what did the Supreme Court set the stage for? The Supreme Court set the stage for legalized segregation when it overturned the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
What was the Colored Farmers National Alliance? This was a group of African American and poor white farmers from the South who joined together to try to help them keep their farms.
What did Booker T. Washington propose? He proposed that African Americans focus on achieving economic goals rather than political ones.
What was the "subtreasury plan"? This was the plan that the Farmer's Alliance created to hold crops in silos & warehouses until they were scarce, then sell them at a higher price to help increase farmer's profits.
List two (2) facts that we learned about Jacob Riis in the nearpod lesson that we did. 1.) He was one of the first people to use "flash lamp photography"; 2.) He was a police reporter, which led him into poor, immigrant neighborhoods.
What was the result of the Supreme Court decision in the "Plessy vs. Ferguson" case? The result of this was the "separate but equal" doctrine that said it was okay to maintain separate facilities for white and African American citizens as long as the facilities were equal.
What did critics of "political machines" say about these organizations? Critics said that citizens did not have equal access to them because they did not always know where to vote & that members were criminals who took bribes.
What did supporters of "political machines" say about these organizations? Supporters of these organizations said at least citizens were getting services they needed and criminals were being dealt with.
What does the term "segregation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the separation of the races".
What were conditions like for many African Americans in the South after Reconstruction? Conditions for this group of people were barely better than slavery. They owned no property & gained little or no economic freedom as sharecroppers.
Created by: sticklerpjpII