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'16 Study Guide

Study Guide for the 2016 Fall US History Final

Tribal leaders are sometimes known by what name? Sachem
These large slabs of ice covered most the world 10,000 years ago. Glaciers
The land bridge that connected Asia and North America was known as what? Beringia
What kind of animals did early farmers begin to raise? Cows, Pigs, Llamas
What are the theories for how mankind arrived on North America? Coastal Route Theory (Arctic water crossing), Beringia Land Bridge, Creation
What is the artificial application of water, to land, known as? Irrigation
What did hunter gatherers search for to meet their needs? Small game and wild plants
Where did people first start growing plants (farming)? Mexico
What kinds of plants were first grown by Native Americans? Squash and lima beans
The largest empire, in the Americas, belonged to what group? Inca
What American empire had the largest city? Aztec
What American empire had a capital city that is now modern day Mexico City? Aztec
The Maya had cities in Mexico and what other part of the world? Central America
The Maya observed the stars to create what item? Calenders
What is the definition of surplus? To have extra
What did conquered tribes have to give to the Aztecs? Treasure, food, prisoners
What was often used to fertilize soil, especially in sandy areas? Fish (that are dead)
What geographic feature was the Aztec capital built on? A lake
What American civilization had the best roads? Inca
What American civilization's capital was known as Cuzco? Inca
At the height of its power, what American civilization was probably the largest in the world? Inca
To keep the Sun God pleased, the Aztecs believed that they needed to make offerings of ___________. Blood
What usually happens to groups that live near farmland? The get larger
What is usually different about each native culture? Their music, their art, their religious beliefs
What Viking is credited with discovering America? Leif Erickson
The Vikings settled on __________, an island off of Canada that had warm enough weather for grapes to grow. Vinland
Viking is a term used by modern scholars to refer to people from ______________who raided Europe and the British Isles. Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland)
______________ received its name possibly due to the fact that Erik the Red probably wanted more people to travel there, not because it had lots of vegetation or warm weather. Greenland
Viking exploration started as opportunistic raids on remote, undefended ____________ but soon evolved into trade and farming. Monasteries
In what year are the Vikings believed to have arrived in America? 1000
What cultural elements were shared among the Viking people? Ideas, economies, religious beliefs, and common language (Old Norse)
What are the characteristics of Viking Ships? Shallow hulls, flexible keels, pointed bows, wool sails, oarsmen
The fall of what city forced Europeans to search for a new eastern route? Constantinople
What country did Columbus believe he landed on? Japan
What did the Aztec mistake the Spanish boats for? Mountains
What man started the protestant movement by nailing a sheet of complaints to a church? Martin Luther
What was the primary complaint towards the Catholic Church? Too much wealth and abuse of power
A respected map maker from ____________________ named the new world after an explorer named ______________________ Vespucci. Germany/Amerigo
Columbus sailed for what country? Spain
Most __________________ Europeans already believed that the earth was round. Educated
What did Aztec engineers do to make more room for their population? Built Islands
Early _______________ routes either went over land across Asia, or on the ocean, around Africa. Trade
Catholic Priests established many _________________ in the Southwest and Mexico. They served as communities, forts and even trading posts. Missions
The Aztecs would invite their enemies to watch what? Ritual Sacrifice
What was the primary material used to build the Aztec temple? Volcanic Stone
What conquistador destroyed the Aztec empire. Cortez
What conquistador explored the southwest and found the grand canyon? Coronado
What conquistador destroyed the Incan empire? Pizarro
What are the three G's? God, Gold and Glory
What are the three C's Conquer, Convert, and Colonize
______ before the 16th Century were often bogus or made bogus claims. Maps
The _________ was a navigation instrument that made all others obsolete. Sextant
____________ was the biggest cause of death for the native populations. Disease
Montezuma was mysteriously killed by a ___________ . Stone
What were the requests that Columbus made to the king of Portugal? He be made Governor of all lands found, He be made Admiral of the Ocean, He be given 10% of all wealth found
What term means to travel around? Circumnavigate
These were Spanish colonists that were born in Spain. Peninsulars
What best defines Conquistador? Soldier Adventurer
What do you call a narrow passageway that connects two large bodies of water? Strait
Portugal turned Columbus down likely because they had already heavily explored which continent? Africa
What modern day city now lies where the Aztec capital existed? Mexico City
What was the purpose of the mercantilism system? To make the home country wealthy
Throughout the 1500’s, what was the primary cause of conflicts, in Europe? Divisions over religion
Spain’s primary enemy was Queen Elizabeth and what country? England
What strained relations between King Phillip and Queen Elizabeth? Religion, English raids on Spanish ships, English assistance to rebels in the Netherlands
How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada affect Europe? France and England could now establish their own colonies, Spain lost the power of the sea, the balance of power shifted to other countries.
Early explorers sailed in hopes of finding what item? The Northwest Passage
The French profited greatly from the trade of what two items? Fish and fur
The Mississippi Valley was claimed for France and named for what King? Louis
English colonies were established to provide what for their country? New Markets for English goods, raw materials for English industries, A chance to look for the northwest passage
In order to even establish a colony, what does one need to obtain from the King? Charter
Roanoke fell on hard times and finally disappeared, the only clue to where they might have gone was the word_________, carved onto a palisade. Croatoan
What were the problems that Jamestown faced? Salty water, lazy men, few skilled carpenters and farmers, and deadly mosquitoes
John Smith was described as an English _________ ____________. Soldier/adventurer
What was John Smith’s philosophy? If you don't work you don't eat (He who works not, eats not!)
What crop gave the Jamestown colonists a chance to make a profit? Tobacco
What people brought the first Africans to Jamestown? Dutch
A colony controlled by the crown is known as what? Royal Colony
Who had “veto” power in Jamestown? Governor
What was the first example of representative government in the Americas? House of Burgesses
The English settlers came to the colonies, drawn by the promise of a new or better life through what concepts? Religious freedom and land ownership
Before going ashore, the pilgrims signed which important document? Mayflower Compact
What native brought the pilgrims seeds of native plants? Squanto
What were the three building blocks of English democracy? Magna Carta, House of Burgesses, and the Mayflower Compact
What were the advantages that the English had over the Spanish Armada? Faster ships, hellburners, bigger guns, weather
How did Columbus trick his crew on their first voyage? He created a fake log
What Constitutional amendment states that anyone born in the United States is automatically a U.S. citizen? 14th
What nation did the United States have a hostile relationship with during the Cold War? Soviet Union
How many people make up the Electoral College? 538
What is the minimum number of votes that can come from any state? 3
What state has the most number of Electoral votes? California
How many Electoral votes must a candidate win in order to become president? 270
Who created the first political cartoon? Benjamin Franklin
What did the "Voting Act" outlaw? Literacy tests
Define "Suffrage"? The right to vote
Created by: Boone555