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US History

Early American History up to 1877

Native Americans Incas, Aztecs, Mayans First People here were from Asia/Siberia via land bridge
Christopher Columbus From Spain Sailed across the Atlantic in 1492 to America
Columbian exchange Exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the new America
Reformation Sixteenth-century movement to reform the Catholic Church that ultimately led to the founding of new Protestant Christian religious groups
John Calvin An influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
Puritans A group of English Protestants of the late 16th and 17th centuries who regarded the Reformation of the Church of England under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship
Quakers This religious tradition arose among Friends in the United States, in the 19th century, and in response to the many converts to Christian Quakerism during the national spiritual revival of the time. Focused on the importance if "Inner Light"
Anglicanism Belonging to the Church of England
Jamestown The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas
House of Burgesses Legislature of colonial Virginia. First organized in 1619, it was the first institution of representative government in the English colonies.
Indentured servants Indentured servants were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia.
Mayflower Compact (1620) 1620, was the first written framework of government established in what is now the United States.
Middle Passage the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade
Forms of slave resistance Breaking tools, running away, faking illness, staging slowdowns, and sabotage
European and Native American relations Native Americans helped the new men until the learned they were trying to take their land, then they were reluctant
Halfway Covenant (1662) a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662
New/Old Lights Old was the way of the Church before the Great Awakening and New was after
Colonial Manufacturing Started in the early 19th Century as a way to part from dependence on the mother country
Merchantilism the primary economic system of trade used from the 16th to 18th century. Trade with the mother country
Taxation without representation To recoup losses Britain incurred defending its colonies during England's Seven Years' War, Parliament began taxing colonists directly
French and Indian War (1754-1763) 1754-1763 was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years' War.
Boston Tea Party On this day in 1773, a group of Massachusetts colonists disguised as Mohawk Indians board three British tea ships moored in Boston Harbor and dump 342 chests of tea into the water. The midnight raid was a protest of the Tea Act of 1773,
Revenue (Sugar) Act purpose was to raise revenues for British administration of the American colonies
Stamp Act (1765) first internal tax levied directly on American colonists by the British government
Hessians approximately 30,000 German troops hired by the British to help fight during the American Revolution.
George Washington First President of the United States
John Adams George Washington's Vice President and second President of the US
Revolutionary War (1775-1783) The conflict arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which represented the British crown
Valley Forge Valley Forge was the military camp 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia where the American Continental Army spent the winter of 1777–78 during the American Revolutionary War.
Articles of Confederation (1777) 1777 the first constitution of the United States
Shays' Rebellion A series of protests in 1786 and 1787 by American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt
Constitutional Convention (1787) Convention held in Philadelphia to create the draft of the Constitution
Great Compromise plan created two separate houses in Congress: a House of Representatives that had proportional representation and a Senate with equal representation.
Judicial Review review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act
Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the Constitution written by James Madison
Washington's Farewell Address A letter written by George Washington to "The People of the United States of America he urged Americans to avoid excessive political party spirit and geographical distinctions. In foreign affairs, he warned against long-term alliances with other nations
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton was an American statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influential interpreter and promoter of the U.S. Constitution
Hamilton's Fiscal Policy to pay off the full debt accrued after the war new security bonds would be issued, a central currency would be created, and self-sufficient manufacturing would be implemented
Homestead Act (1862) 160 acres of free land would be given to any head of family who would cultivate it for 5 years
Morrill Act (1862) Provided land grants to assist in the education of agricultural studies
"Pittsburgh of the South" Steel center of the South located in Birmingham, Alabama
"New South" Development of Industry
"Solid South" South voted democrat because they resented the Republican party from the Civil War
Tuskegee Institute Established in 1881 was a vocational school led by Booker T. Washington
Howard/Fisk University African American Institutions of education
Jim Crow Laws Laws that kept African Americans separate from whites in public places
"Grandfather Clause" If your grandfather could vote before the Civil War then you would be exempt from the literacy test
Presidential Election of 1876 Samuel Tilden (governor of New York) vs. Rutherford B. Hayes (governor of Ohio). Hayes won with the vote of 185 to 184
Amnesty Act (1872) Increased the number of Southern voters
Carpetbagger a person from the northern states who went to the South after the Civil War to profit from the Reconstruction
Scalawags a white Southerner who collaborated with northern Republicans during Reconstruction, often for personal profit. The term was used derisively by white Southern Democrats who opposed Reconstruction legislation
Carpetbag government Used the Reconstruction as a way to make profit for themselves
Tenure Office Act (1867) intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate
Force Acts (1870, 1871) Acts made to end violence towards african american voters and empower the president to use military force to protect African Americans
First Reconstruction Act (1867) divided the South (except Tennessee) into five military districts in which the authority of the army commander was supreme
13th Ammendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime
14th Ammendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War
15th Ammendent granting African-American men the right to vote
Freedman's Bureau established in 1865 to aid freedmen (freed slaves) in the South during the Reconstruction era of the United States
Civil Rights Act 1866 granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
"Black Codes" laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt
"Radical Republicans" organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction
Ten-Percent Plan specified that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters (from the voter rolls for the election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
Reconstruction (1865-1877) Rebuilding the country after the Civil War
Texas Annexation 1836 Removal from Mexico
Alien and Sedition Acts Four acts passed by Congress in 1798 limiting freedom of speech and the liberty of foreigners residing in the U. S.
Era of Good feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
Missouri Compromise an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri admission as a state which slavery would be permitted. The United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free.
Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825, after the election was decided by the House of Representatives.
Jacksonian Era a time of rampant growth and regional diversification
Manifest Destiny the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable
Compromise of 1850 the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished.
Nativism the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants
Popular Sovereignty the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives
Secession the withdrawal of eleven southern states from the Union in 1860, leading to the Civil War
Sharecropping a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land
Embargo Act 1807 prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports
Created by: Lauren72897
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