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HIST121 Quick Q's

Quick questions about concepts and the thinkers behind them

Who believed that water was the main element of nature? Thales of Miletus
Which material monist believed in fire as being the main substance to the universe? He believed that the world is made of conflict and change and that reason is the divine force, not anything else. (AKA the Riddler) Heraclitus
Which monist believed that there was a mysterious all knowing God that wanted humans to use reason? He is considered the first Eleatic because he believes that the fundamental substance is not material. Xenophanes
Which monist believed that change is an illusion? He rejected all the elemental archetypes (e.g. fire, water) as being the centre of creation because it was just like mythology. He rejected empiricism and advocated reason. Melissus of Samos
The fact that Israel is seen as "the chosen land" with a particular destiny to be saved demonstrates what perspective? Parochialism
To Plato, what was the role of the soul? To link humanity to the world of higher forms.
How were Plato's ideas distinct from Greek mythology He emphasized the ethical implications of his metaphysical theory of the forms. (There is a higher good that we can achieve through reason).
How were Plato's ideas different from the Hebraic divine Did not believe in an omnipotent being, but simply believed in a realm of higher forms.
What were Plato's three classes of society? Rulers (Philosopher Kings), Guardians, and Producers
What were some of Aristotle's critiques on Plato? Forms don't account for change in the world. They don't affect this world in any way and there is no connection of they relate to specific objects.
What are the four causes of change? 1. Material Causes (What is it made from?) 2. Formal Causes (What is its pattern/form?) 3. Efficient Causes (What made it come into being?) 4. Final Causes (What is its purpose?)
What are the three types of final causes? 1. Causes of Action (Why do you do something) 2. Causes of Artifacts (Why does it have a certain feature) 3. Causes of Bodies (Why does it serve that function [not rooted in mental activity])
What were perverted governments to Aristotle? Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy
What was Aristotle's ideal government? The Polity; the middle ground between extremes of Democracy (governed by many) and Tyranny (governed by one)
What three schools emerged in reaction to Platonian and Aristotelian philosophies? They emphasize how we should live our lives. Epicureans, Stoics, Skepticism
What was Epicurus's definition of pleasure? He saw it as "sober reasoning" that we should all strive for. It is the absence of physical pain or disturbance in the soul. Reason conquers fear and makes a just life.
Who rejected Monism, Aristotle and the existence of the divine? He believed free will was the random swerve of atoms. Lucretius
How was Cicero a combination of stoicism and skepticism? He valued a dialectical argument to see both sides. He also believed in the promotion of virtue and a "universal brotherhood of man." He emphasized duty and self control.
How did the message of Jesus' teachings differ from Judaism? Rejected concerns with rituals and emphasized inner morality. Rejected need for religious sacrifice? Emphasized universal law and universal justice as well as creating a new understanding of the Old Testament.
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