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Mid-Term 2016 8th SS

Mid-term 8th Grade SS 2016

TermDefinition
Slave Codes A series of laws that limited slave rights
Slave Codes Slave owners were given authority to impose harsh physical punishment and to control their slaves in any fashion they sought; without court intervention
Missouri Compromise Henry Clay's solution to to the acceptance of Missouri ans a new slave-holding state
Slave Codes Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, learning to read and write, meeting with other African-Americans without permission, and testifying against whites in court
Missouri Compromise A new slave state would tip the balance of power between slave and free states, giving slave state more power in the Senate
Missouri Compromise To settle the dispute between slave and free states in the Senate, Maine would become a new free state
Missouri Compromise Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state, and no slavery would be allowed north of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude (Missouri's southern border)
Denmark Vesey As a slave, he won enough money in a lottery to buy his own freedom; used church get-togethers to plan a violent slave revolt in South Carolina; he and 34 other slaves were hanged for this conspiracy
Tariff of Abominations Tariff with higher import duties for many goods bought by Southern planters
Tariff of Abominations John C. Calhoun of South Carolina suggested nullification would be used, suggesting that a federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared null and void with in a state
nullification A state could declare a federal law null and void, having no legal force, in a state if the state did not like it
John C. Calhoun From South Carolina; champion of state's rights and nullification
Tariff of Abominations Tariff of 1828
Webster-Hayne Debate Debate in the senate between Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Robert Hayne of South Carolina that was focused on sectionalism and nullification
Webster-Hayne Debate Daniel Webster stated in the debate, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable
Nat Turner Slave who led a revolt in southampton, Virginia in 1831
Nat Turner Led aout 60 slaves in an unsuccessful revolt, killing the family of his owner and running rampant through the nearby countryside, killing 55 whites
Abolitionism The belief that slavery should end immediately
William Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist who was the editor of the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator
Frederick Douglass An escaped slave and outspoken abolitionist
Classes on the Antebellum South Planters, Yeoman farmers, poor whites, slaves
Yeoman farmers Largest group in the Antebellum South; worked the land independently to produce their own food
Planters Owned large farms and many slaves; exercised political and economic control of the South with cotton exports
Slaves worked the land in the South, three-fourths of whites in the South did not own slaves
Underground Railroad method used to move slaves from the South to free territory in the United States and Canada
Harriet Tubman A runaway freed slave who served as a conductor on the Underground Railroad; led over 300 slaves to freedom
Popular Sovereignty Doctrine under which the status of slavery in the territories was to be determined by the settlers thenselves
Free Soil Party Political party which opposed slavery in the new territories
Industry by 1850 Centered in the North; very little industry in the South
Cotton Largest export of the United States in the 1850s
Stephen Douglas Nicknamed "The Little Giant"
Stephen Douglas Pushed the Compromise of 1850 through Congress
Stephen Douglas Introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854
Compromise of 1850 Proposed by Henry Clay and pushed through Congress by Stephen Douglas
Compromise of 1850 California was admitted as a free state; New Mexico and Utah Territories would decide if they are free or slave by popular sovereignty; Fugitive Slave Law passed
Fugitive Slave Law Part of the Compromise of 1850; created federal commissioners who would pursue runaway slaves in any state, free or slave
Harriet Beecher Stowe Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, an anti-slavery novel
Kansas-Nebraska Act Legislation introduced by Stephen Douglas to facilitate the building of a transcontinental railroad
Kansas-Nebraska Act Called for two territories to be created (Kansas and Nebraska); free or slave status would be decided by popular sovereignty; Nebraska became free and Kansas was a war zone known as "Bleeding Kansas"
Bleeding Kansas Pro- and anti-slavery groups fought for control in the Kansas Territory
Republican Party Believed that slavery should be banned in all of the United States' territories and not be permitted to spread any further
James Buchanan 15th president; denied the legal right of states to secede but did nothing to stop them from leaving the Union
Dred Scot vs. Sandford Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state
Dred Scott vs. Sandford After Dred Scott returned to Missouri he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that residing in a free state ended his slavery
Dred Scott vs. Sandford Chief Justice Robert Taney, a pro-Southern judge wrote the majority opinion
Dred Scott vs. Sandford The Supreme Court ruled that Scott did not have the right of citizenship and so could not bring suit in federal court; the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (went against the Constitution), slavery could not be prohibited in the territories
John Brown abolitionist, who with his sons killed five pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in a incident known as the Pottawatamie Creek Massacre
John Brown He led his followers to seize a federal arsenal at Harper's ferry, Virginia hoping to start a slave rebellion; it was a failure and he was captured, tried and hanged for treason; became a martyr for the abolitionist cause
Election of 1860--Candidates Republican Party--Abraham Lincoln Northern Democratic Party--Stephen Douglas Southern Democratic Party--John Breckinridge Constitutional Union Party--John Bell
Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln elected 16th U. S. president
Election of 1860 Southern states vowed to secede if Lincoln was elected, which the did
Secede to leave
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America
Fort Sumter (Charleston, S. C.) First shots of the Civil War fired here on April 12, 1861; Confederate victory
First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) First pitched battle of the Civil War; Confederate victory
First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) Confederate General Thomas Jackson received his nickname. "Stonewall" here
Battle of Fredericksburg In Virginia; Confederate victory
Battle of Chancellorsville In Virginia; Confederate victory; Stonewall Jackson was wounded by his own men and died here
Battle of Antietam In Maryland; first time Confederates invade the North; Union General George McClellan discover Lee's plans but ignored the opportunity to destroy the Confederate forces because of overcautiousness; Lee;s army retreats to Virginia.
Battle of Antietam Bloodiest day of the Civil War
Created by: marthell