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CCC Tutorial 5

According to Rozkwitalska (2010), what is a cross-cultural interaction? A cross-cultural interaction is a reciprocal influence (action) of a person or people from one national or organisational culture on another person or people from different national or organisational cultures.
Why are cross-cultural interactions complex in nature? Our cultures rank for us what is important, shapes our attitudes, behaviour and the way we communicate with others.
What are the 4 ways conflicts can emerge from cross-cultural interactions? It stems from differences 1. in determining what is important to each 2. in attitudes to the issue at hand 3. in their respective behaviour 4. in the way they communicate their attitudes
What factors are at play in cross-cultural interactions? •Decision making style •Conflict-resolution styles •Concept of face
What Hofstede values participate in decision-making styles? Power distance, short/long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance
What is the difference between STO and LTO decision-making styles? STOs focus on the short term and take a cost-benefit approach to decision-making. LTOs focus on the long term and take a relationship building approach to decision making.
What countries participate in STO and LTO decision-making styles respectively? STO: The US LTO: China, Japan, India
How does power distance affect decision making styles in various cultures? Hierarchical cultures expect bosses to make the decisions. Individualist cultures, thus decentralized and participative, expect bosses to make the decisions Japan, collectivist-leaning, gets a consensus from all but the boss makes the final decision
What is the difference between how Middle Easterners and Westerners make decisions? Middle Easterners: Depends on the importance of the matter at hand. The More important – The longer time taken to decide. Has Long term implications Westerners: Fast and decisive
What is 'face'? The public image of a person.
Where is face important and where is it not? Face is important in Asia, Middle East, Russia and some European countries – high emphasis on societal approval West – less emphasis on societal approval; more concern with the self
How does one gain and lose face? You gain face when you receive respect, honour, recognition You lose face when you are threatened, humiliated, insulted, your credibility is at stake
How does face relate to high and low-context culture? High context cultures are more indirect - tend to engage in exchanges that help people gain/save face Low context cultures more direct - generally tend to engage in exchanges that make people lose face
How does France interact with regards to face? they try to avoid negotiation for fear of losing power and status if they concede in a negotiation – seen as a loss of face
How does the Soviet Union interact with regards to face? Compromising is weakness. They will never make the first concession – let the opposite side struggle hard enough in negotiations – they make their concessions seem like a huge act of kindness – seen as an act to save the other party’s face
How does the Middle East interact with regards to face? Third parties are often used for negotiations – to save face e.g. Egypt vs Israel – making direct concessions is viewed as suffering a serious loss of face. So engaged US as the go between
How does China, Japan, India interact with regards to face? Most important to increase one’s face value or standing in society and successfully avoiding a loss of face. There is a greater importance placed on build harmony and respect of one another.
How does India interact with regards to face? -deference to elders -respecting bosses -protecting bosses from losing face by sacrificing their own -setting up processes inside hierarchy to reduce possibility of loss of face -avoiding causing someone to lose face by accommodating
What is conflict? A situation in which the concerns of two or more individuals appear to be incompatible and which tends to occur when individuals or groups perceive that others are preventing them from attaining their goals
How do views of conflict differ amongst cultures? Culturally defined; cultures view conflict as positive while others view it as something to be avoided.
What are the benefits of conflict? • grow individuals’ innovativeness and productivity • Offer interpersonal relationship satisfaction, creative problem solving, growth of global workforce and domestic workplace diversity • improve efficiency, creativity, and profitability
What are the bad things of conflict? • Bad feelings, high turnover, and costly litigation (Hirschman, 2001, 59) • Bring groups to a stand still
How are conflict resolution styles affected by culture? These styles are often determined by their respective cultural values as well as their concern for the concept of Face (for the Asians, Middle East, and some European countries e.g. France) and concept of Self (for the West).
What are the conflict resolution styles? Competing, Compromising, Accomodating, Avoiding, Collaborating,
What is the competing style of conflict resolution? "It's not enough that I win - you must lose." Concerns, positions of the enemy are completely ignored. Goal: Winning the argument - concession = weakness. No concern about feelings or how they will live with decisions - tough luck.
What is the compromising style of conflict resolution? "You win some, you lose some." Willing to trade some of your needs to win concessions from the other side. 'Horse-trading' - giving up things you want in the hopes that the other side will do the same and that you can live with the outcome.
What is the accommodating style of conflict resolution? "Whatever." Sacrifice, selflessness and low assertiveness. Willing to give up everything in order to preserve relationships. It is certainly reasonable to use this strategy when the issue at hand is something of little importance to you.
What is the avoiding style of conflict resolution? "I'll think about that tomorrow." Avoid making a decision at whatever cost. Neither your concerns nor the enemy's concerns need be satisfied. Appropriate when pressed to negotiate a peripheral issue and there is a much bigger conflict
What is the collaborative style of conflict resolution? "Let's find a solution that works for all of us.“ Sometimes called a 'win/win' strategy, the collaborating style strives to make sure that both sides are satisfied
What countries practice what conflict resolution styles? USA - Competing China - Compromising India - Accommodating Korea - Compromising Japan - Avoiding Australia - Collaborating
What are the cultural values in USA's competing style of conflict resolution? • Individualism • Freedom • Equality • Competition and challenge
What are the cultural values in China's compromising style of conflict resolution? • Harmony • Peace • Respect for old and young • Relationships
What are the cultural values in India's accommodating style of conflict resolution? • Tolerance • Patience • Feelings, emotions • spiritual
What are the cultural values in Japan's avoiding style of conflict resolution? Hierarchical • respect authority • Obligation to group • Harmony • Collectivism
What are the cultural values in Australia's collaborating style of conflict resolution? • Freedom • Equality • Respect for one another



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