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CCC Tutorial 2

According to Marsella (1994), what is culture? Culture is shared learned behaviour which is transmitted from one generation to another for purposes of promoting individual and social survival, adaptation, and growth and development.
What are some examples of the external and internal representations of culture? -External (e.g. artifacts, roles,institutions) -Internal representations (e.g. values, attitudes, beliefs)
What are values of a culture? What the culture believes is right about identity, the world and how to judge other people
What does culture do? Culture ranks what is important Culture shapes attitudes Culture determines behaviour
What is meant when it is said that "culture ranks what is important"? The Values of a culture indicate a relative hierarchy in terms of cultural priorities, as they act as standards that members use to judge what is important
What are attitudes? Attitudes are learned tendencies to respond to phenomenon (events, people, experiences) in a consistent manner.
What is meant when it is said that "culture shapes attitudes"? Attitudes determine how we feel about something--can be positive or negative, based on values.
What is behaviour? Actions.
What is meant when it is said that "culture determines behaviour"? Behaviour comes directly from attitudes about how significant something is – how it is valued. Thus, the values of an drive actions.
Explain the relationship of a value, an attitude and a behaviour by giving an example. Value - Honesty Attitude - Telling lies is wrong Behaviour - Tells truths
In sociology, what are the two categories that a culture is made up of? Material culture and symbolic culture.
What is material culture? Any physical object to which social meaning is given: language, architecture, food & art, etc
What is symbolic culture? Ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communication).
According to Rubin and Stewart (1994), what is human communication? Human communication is the process through which individuals – in relationships, groups, organisations, and societies – respond to and create messages to adapt to the environment and one another
What are the key principles of communication? Communication is •Dynamic •Is symbolic •Is systemic •Involves making inferences •Is self-reflective •Shaped by culture
What are the 5 theories of cross-cultural communication? - Hofstede’s Value Dimension - Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientation - Hall’s Context Orientation - Trompenaars and Charles - Hampden-Turner’s 7 dimensions
What are the 6 Hofstede dimensions? Power Distance Individualism and Collectivism Masculinity and Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation vs Short-term Orientation Indulgence vs Restraint
What is the difference between high power distance and low power distance cultures? •High power distance - Hierarchical cultures – accept that power is distributed unequally • Low power distance - Flat cultures – question authority and attempt to spread power equally
What is the difference between individualistic and collectivist cultures? • Individualistic cultures - Loose ties between members • Collectivist cultures - Strong times between members
What is the difference between masculine and feminine cultures? • Masculine - Cultures that emphasize achievement, aggression and competition • Feminine - Cultures that emphasize cooperation, caring and modesty
What is the difference between high uncertainty avoidance cultures and low uncertainty avoidance cultures? • High uncertainty avoidance - More rules and structures - Risk is bad • Low uncertainty avoidance - Fewer rules and structures - Risk is OK
What is the difference between cultures that are long-term oriented and cultures that are short term oriented? • Long-term view - Emphasises planning for the future, adaptation and problem solving as good • Short-term - Emphasises past traditions, change is generally bad
What is the difference between indulgent cultures and restraint cultures? • Indulgent societies - Believe they are in control of their own life • Restraint societies - Believe external factors control their life
What is the difference between high context cultures and low context cultures? • High Context Cultures - Use of the situation in which the communication takes place + Messages are indirect, ambiguous + Greater use of non-verbals • Low Context Cultures - Messages are direct, clear - More use of verbals
What are some traits of low context cultures? • Language of action • Reality is measurable – emphasis on logical proof, factual data • Individuals are responsible – language structure (subject/verb/object reflects identify agent and action) • Messages are direct, explicit and personal
What are some traits of high context cultures? • Rich, multi-valued, complex, subtle • Reality is complex, impressionistic • Individuals live in harmony with nature. Language structure often indirect • Harmony dominates. Rare use `I’, `me’. • Messages should be indirect and impersonal
What are some potential barriers to effective cross-cultural communication? • Ethnocentricism • Stereotyping • Prejudice • Discrimination • Cultural blindness • Cultural imposition
What are some other barriers to effective cross-cultural communication? • Language • Discourse rules • Ignorance of communication norms of different cultures • Nonverbals • Hearing what you expect to hear • Different perceptions • Different intentions • Speaking = listening syndrome
What is ethnocentrism? Inability to accept another culture’s world view (‘my culture and my view is the best”)
What is stereotyping? Generalising about a person or group based on extreme or one sample without considering individual differences
What is prejudice? A prejudice is a judgment we make about another person or other people without really knowing them.
Why is prejudice hard to eradicate? Prejudices are learned as part of our socialisation process
What is discrimination? Differential treatment of an individual or group due to minority status, actual and perceived. E.g. we are not equipped to serve people like them
What is cultural blindness? Ignoring differences: Acting as though differences do not exist and also has the view that it is not necessary to consider a person’s or group’s culture
What is cultural imposition? Belief that everyone should conform to the majority. E.g. we know what it best. If you do not like it you can go elsewhere
What are some examples of language barriers? - Script - Vocabulary - Grammatical structures - Discourse rules
What are language barriers determined by? They are all determined by one’s culture
What are some examples of discourse rules? - Opening or closing conversations - Taking turns during conversations - Interrupting - Using silence as a communicative device (expressing assent or displeasure e.g.)
What are some other examples of discourse rules? - Knowing the appropriate amount of speech to be used by participants - Sequencing of elements during discourse (orders; requests) - Apologies (when to and when not to) - Compliments (Giving and receiving)
What is meant by being ignorant of the communication norms of different cultures? Missing the verbal as well as the non-verbal signals people send when communicating. Not all verbal and non-verbal signals can be accurately interpreted.
What are some non-verbals? Distance Touching Body Posture Gestures Facial expressions Eye contact
What is meant by hearing what you expect to hear? Listening selectively for only those things that meet our expectations and screening out everything else Thus leading to interpreting a different message from the sender than what he/she intended
What is meant by having different perceptions? We perceive the world differently depending on how we select, organise and interpret information
What is meant by having different intentions? Reading intentions in others’ actions (behaviour and communication) which may not be what they intended
What is meant by Speaking = Listening? what I say and mean = what you hear and understand what I say and mean ≠ what you hear
How do we maximize the chances of communicating successfully across cultures? Communicating successfully across cultures involves • Being sensitive which requires • Knowledge and a • Good attitude
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