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Creat. Amer. Chap11

Creat. Amer. 11

What did Eli Whitney do? Made interchangeable parts for muskets
How did interchangeable parts help? Made repairs easy, could use lower paid and less skilled workers. Supervisors had to watch the less-skilled workers closely and the workers didn't like it.
What was different about steamboats? Steamboats carried people and goods farther and faster. Created cities like St. Louis and New Orleans.
What did Robert Fulton invent? A steamboat that could move against the current or strong wind.
What was Robert Fulton's boat's named and where did it go? Clermont on the Hudson River in 1807, called Fulton's Folly
Transportation advances changed what in the 1800s? People and goods could farther for less money. Goods could be bought and sold in more distant areas.
What did Samuel Morse invent? The telegraph machine and the code. Electrical pulses = words
How did steamboats and telegraph create unity? People could communicate across the country and they could be transported.
What did John Deere invent? A lightweight plow with a steel cutting edge. It stuck to the soil, so he made a new one.
What did farmers do after John Deere made his new plow? The farmers moved to the Midwest because farming was easier.
What is agriculture? Farming
What did mechanical reapers do? Cut fresh grain
What do threshers do? Separates kernels of wheat from the husks
How does unity build between the Northeast and the Midwest farmers? Northeast makes goods that the farmers buy. Farmers grow food that the Northeast eats.
What are textiles? Fabrics
Northeast needs more textile, what happens? Need more cotton from the south, so slavery grows.
What happened when Eli Whitney visited Catherine Greene in 1793 in Georgia? He invented a cotton gin to clean cotton faster. Machine = 50 pounds a day Person = 1 pound a day
How did cotton change the south? #1 Cotton plantations spread west across the south.
How did cotton change the south? #2 Cotton was valuable so farmers planted that instead of other things. Cotton exports are growing.
How did cotton change the south? #3 Native Americans were forced off their land so that people could grow cotton.
How did cotton change the south? #4 Cotton farming needs a lot of labor, so more slaves were brought to the plantations.
Production of cotton grew dramatically from 1790-1860. What did that do to the value of slaves? The value/cost of slaves went up when cotton growth went up.
In 1840, what fraction of southern families owned slaves? 1/3
In 1840, of slave owning families, what fraction had a large plantation? 1/10
In 1840, what percentage of the south's population were enslaved African Americans? 1/3
In 1840, about half of the slaves worked in plantations? Where did the other half work? Cities, in houses or factories, or laborers
In 1840, what percentage of African Americans in the south were free? 8%
How did the African Americans become free? 1. Born free 2. Freed by their owner 3. Bought their own freedom
What are some problems that free African Americans had in the south? 1. Some states made them leave 2. Couldn't vote or get an education 3. No one would hire them 4. Worst threat - Captured and sold into slavery again
What did slaves rely on to help them endure their situation? Religion, bonds with family and friends, music
How did slave owners try to get slave to accept their treatment? With quotes from the Bible
How did enslaved people use the Bible? Spiritual songs that contained secret messages about escape or the masters - Especially about Moses
African American spirituals influenced what kinds of music? Blues, jazz, and others
What was one of the cruelest things about slavery? Families were sold to different owners so they were separated. Families that were able to stay together took comfort from each other.
How many well known slave rebellions were there? 3
What did Gabriel Prosser do to rebel? Planned an attack on attack on Richmond, Virginia. Was tried and hanged as punishment.
What did Nat Turner do in Virginia to rebel? He killed 55 white people with his 70 followers. He was tried and hanged for his rebellion.
What did Denmark Vesey do to rebel? Planned an attack on Charleston, SC. Was tried and hanged as punishment.
What did whites do as revenge for Nat Turner's rebellion? Killed 200 African Americans.
White people in the south grew nervous after Nat Turner's rebellion. What did they do? Stricter laws were passed against African Americans were passed (no weapons, no liquor, no religious meeting, no coded messages)
The Industrial Revolution replaced hand tools with... factory machines.
In the Industrial Revolution, farming was replaced with... large scale manufacturing.
How did the War of 1812 encourage American manufacturing? The British blockade kept European products out of the United States, so the Americans had to manufacture their own.
The factory system brought many workers and machines together under... one roof (into one building or factory).
Most early factories were built next to what and why? Factories were built next to a water source to power the machines.
What are the three reasons that most early factories were built in New England? 1. New England has plenty of swift moving streams and rivers to power the factories. 2. Farming was difficult because of the stony soil, so people were willing to work in the farms. 3. Ocean harbors were close to transport the finished goods/products.
What did Samuel Slater build in Pawtucket, Rhode Island? His first spinning mill and it was a new way to produce cotton textiles.
What did Francis Cabot Lowell do in 1813? He built a factory that spun raw cotton into yarn, then wove it into cloth using POWER LOOMS.
Lowell Mills usually hired... farm girls.
Lowell Mills employees usually lived in... company owned boarding houses.
When the mill first started, the girls made good money but they left when... they got married.
In the 1830s, factories powered by what challenged Lowells water-powered factories? Steam powered factories challenged the water powered factories.
What happened when the steam powered factories challenged the Lowell water powered factories? Working conditions worsened and the girls went on strike demanding 10 hour days (because they were being forced to work days longer than 10 hours).
What did President Madison's plan present about in 1815? Would make the economy self sufficient.
The American Plan - Part A Establish a protective tariff - making European products cost more, so that people would buy American made products that are less exprensive
The American Plan - Part B Establish a national bank to promote a single currency and making trade easier. 2nd National Bank
The American Plan - Part C Improve the country's transportation system - made it easier for people and goods to move from place to place
What did John C Calhoun of South Carolina want to do with transportation? Bind the nation the nation together with better roads and canals.
In 1806, there was an east to west route between what cities? Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia
The time from 1825-1850 what called the what? The Age of Canals
What canal connected New York City and Buffalo, New York? The Erie Canal
How did the Erie Canal help move goods? Farm products moved east, and manufacturing moved west
When did steam powered transportation grow? 1830s
When nationalism spread, people shifted their loyalty from ___________________ to _______________________? state government to federal government
McColloch vs. Maryland (1819) said what? States cannot control the federal government
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) said what? Federal government controls interstate commerce
What was the Rush-Bagot Agreement in 1817? Limited both sides naval forces on the Great Lakes
What did the Convention of 1818 agree on in terms of the US-Canadian border? The border was the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains
What did the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 do? Spain gave Florida to the United States and gave up the Oregon Country.
What the sectionalism? Sectionalism is loyalty to your region/section of the country, rather that to the whole country.
White southerners depended on __________________. Cotton and slavery
North East depended on ________________________ and _________. Goods and trade
In the West, settlers wanted _________________ and ____________. cheap land and good transportation
Why was it important when Missouri applied for statehood? There were 11 slave states and 11 free states. Missouri wanted slaves so it would break the tie in Congress.
What did James Talmadge propose? Ban slavery in Missouri
Representative Cobb (Georgia - South) - What did he say about banning slavery? If you persist, the Union will be dissolved. You have kindled a fire which all of the oceans cannot put out."
Who proposed the Missouri Compromise in 1820? Henry Clay
What was the Missouri Compromise? Missouri would be a slave state and Maine would be a free state (so there would still be a tie in Congress between free and slave states - a BALANCE OF POWER))
After the Missouri Compromise, where was slavery banned? After the Missouri Compromise, slavery would be banned north of the 36 degrees, 30'.
How did Thomas Jefferson feel about the Missouri Compromise? He was apprehensive that the Missouri Compromise would create sectionalism and destroy the country.
In Latin America, some colonies obtained their freedom from Spain and Portugal. Did the United States want to help Spain and Portugal get their colonies back? They did NOT want to help Spain and Portugal get their colonies back because they feared that it would make the United States government in danger.
Who was America concerned about entering Alaska in 1784? Russians
How far south did Russian trading posts get by 1812? San Fransisco
When did President Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine? 1823
What were the three parts of the Monroe Doctrine? 1. Americas were closed to future colonization (there could be no more colonies) 2. European efforts to regain their colonies could be dangerous to peace and safety in the US. 3. The US will stay out of Europe's affairs (business)
What did the Monroe Doctrine show about the United States and Latin America? The Monroe Doctrine showed that the United States saw itself as a world power and protector of Latin America.
Created by: mrsstack506