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WH2 Stack

Renaissance to Modern Day

QuestionAnswer
Who is credited with the unification of Northern Italy? Count Cavour
Who is credited with joining southern Italy to northern Italy? Giuseppe Garibaldi
What was the last of the Italian states to join the unified Italy? The Papal States
What part of the Papal States is now the capital of Italy? Rome
Otto von Bismark led Prussia in the unification of Germany through _________________ and by appealing to _________________________ feelings. War & Nationalist feelings.
What political theory used by Otto von Bismark justified all means to achieve and hold power? Realpolitik
What war ultimately led to the creation of the German state? Franco Prussian War
Which two countries became nation-states long after the rest of Europe? Italy & Germany
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? Availability of natural resources and the steam engine.
The invention and the improvement of what technology enabled the Industrial Revolution to develop in England? The Steam Engine
Why did the spread of industrialism to Europe and the United States accelerate colonialism and imperialism? Rising economic powers wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world.
From what areas did raw materials needed for increasing industrialization come? the Americas, Asia, and Africa
The rise of what system led to the demise of the cottage industry? Factory System
What British movement was related to the Industrial Revolution in its use of technology and innovation to improve productivity, particularly in agriculture? the British Enclosure Movement
What did James Hargreaves invent that contributed to the Industrial Revolution? the Spinning Jenny
What invention by James Watt was a key part of the Industrial Revolution? the Steam Engine
Who invented the cotton gin? Eli Whitney
What process, developed by Henry Bessemer, changed society during the Industrial Revolution? Bessemer Process
What important advancement in science/medicine was developed by Louis Pasteur? discovery of bacteria
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on population? it increased
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the standard of living for most people? it increased
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on transportation? it was improved
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on population distribution? it increased
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on education? it increased/ more people became educated
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the attitudes of the working class, regarding working conditions? The became increasingly dissatisfied.
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the middle class? it grew- the middle class became larger and better off, but there also became a bigger gap between the middle class and the poor
What were some (2) theories that are opposed to capitalism? Socialism & Communism
What economic theory fueled the Industrial Revolution? Capitalism
From which area did the West adopt their numerical system? India & the Middle East
What document was written by Martin Luther? the 95 Theses
What is Martin Luther credited with creating? Protestantism
"A coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs." -Johann Tetzel This describes ____________________________ the selling of indulgences
Paper Silk Porcelain Compass From what country did these products come? China
How were scientific knowledge, such as medicine, astronomy, and mathematics exchanged among the cultures of the world by 1500 A.D.? Along trade routes.
In 1500 A.D., where was Judaism concentrated? Europe and the Middle East
In 1500 A.D., where was Christianity concentrated? Europe and the Middle East
In 1500 A.D., where was Islam concentrated? Parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
In 1500 A.D. where was Hinduism concentrated? India and part of Southeast Asia
In 1500 A.D. where was Hinduism concentrated? East and Southeast Asia
What time period is considered a "rebirth" of classical knowledge and the "birth" of the modern world? The Renaissance
Who are the two most famous Renaissance painters/ sculptors (visual arts)? Leonardo da Vinci & Michelangelo
Which Renaissance figure is famous for his accomplishments in literature (plays, sonnets, and essays) William Shakespeare
Which Renaissance figure is known for his accomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism) particularly "The Praise of Folly"? Erasmus
What trade routes went across Asia to the Mediterranean basin? Silk Routes (Silk Road)
Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean connected what two continents through trade? Asia and Africa
The Black Sea linked what part of Europe to trade with other cultures? Northern Europe
What were the primary sources of transportation (geographic features) for trade used by Western Europe? Rivers and Seas
What body of water was used for trade by lands of the Southeast Asia? South China Sea
What linked Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe, allowing for the exchange of products and ideas? Regional Trade Patterns (Trade Routes)
What product is most associated with trade from both India and the Middle East, around 1500 A.D.? Textiles (Fabrics esp. Cotton)
What group of people began to challenge the Church's view of usury? Wealthy Merchants
Nobles from which two areas disliked Italian domination of the Church? England and Germany
The Church's great _________________ power and ___________________ caused conflict, leading up to the Protestant Reformation. Political power and wealth.
Church corruption and the sale of ______________________________ were widespread and caused conflict, leading up to the Protestant Reformation. Indulgences
Salvation by faith alone The Bible is the ultimate source of authority 95 Theses Birth of the Protestant Church Who does this describe? Martin Luther
Predestination Faith revealed by living a righteous life Strong work ethic Expansion of Protestant Movement Who does this describe? John Calvin
Anglican Church Tolerance for Dissenters Expansion and Colonialism Victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588 A.D. Who does this describe? Queen Elizabeth I of England
Princes in _______________________ _______________________ converted to Protestantism, ending the authority of the Pope in their states. Northern Germany
What family carried the authority of the Holy Roman Empire and continued to support the Church throughout the Protestant Reformation? The Hapsburgs
When the Thirty Years' War began, which two groups were fighting each other? (What was the fighting initially over?) Catholics and Protestants (Religion)
What was granted in the Edict of Nantes? Religious Freedom
By whose authority was the Edict of Nantes granted? Catholic Monarchy of France
What group of people benefited from the Edict of Nantes? Protestant French Huguenots
How did Cardinal Richelieu change the focus of the Thirty Years' War? He changed it from a religious conflict to a political one.
Who were two religious dissenters from before Martin Luther? Jan Huss & John Wycliffe
Council of Trent Jesuit Order founded Inquisition used to reinforce Church doctrine What is this describing? Catholic Counter Reformation
What was the purpose/ outcome of the Council of Trent? Reaffirmed Church doctrine and practices.
Why was the society of Jesus founded? To spread Catholic doctrine.
What was used to "reinforce Catholic doctrine"? Inquisition
Growth of Individualism Growth of Secularism Eventual growth of religious tolerance What event/period led to these outcomes? The Reformation
What invention stimulated increased literacy, led to German, English, and French translations of the Bible, and enable the spreading of ideas in both the Renaissance and Reformation? The Printing Press
Demand for what three things led to European exploration and colonization of the Western Hemisphere? Gold, Spices, and Natural Resources
With the loss of Constantinople in 1453, Europeans had to find a new route for trade. What body of water was explored for new trade routes? Atlantic Ocean
-Support for the diffusion (spread) of Christianity -Political and Economic Competition between European Empires -Innovations in the Navigational Arts -Pioneering Role of Prince Henry the Navigator What discovery do these factors contribute to? Lands in the Western Hemisphere
What two cultures innovated in navigational arts, leading up to the age of discovery? Europe and the Middle East
Why was Prince Henry the Navigator given that name? He opened navigational schools and supported exploration.
What Portuguese explorer discovered a sea route to India from Europe? Vasco da Gama
What country did Christopher Columbus represent when he sailed west from Europe? Spain
Fransisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan, and Hernando Cortez were all from what country? Spain
Which explorer is known for conquering the Aztec Civilization? Hernando Cortez
Which explorer is know for conquering the Inca civilization? Fransisco Pizarro
Which explorer's crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe? Ferdinand Magellan
Sir Francis Drake was an explorer from what country? England
What area did Jacques Cartier explore for France? Montreal (Canada)
One motive for exploration was the spread the Christian religion. In what ways was Christianity spread? Migration of colonists to new lands (Catholic and Protestant colonists brough their faith, language, and culture with them) Conversion of Indigenous Peoples
Why did Europeans establish trading posts along the coast of Africa? For trade in slaves and gold, along with other resources.
What was the effect of European expansion on the Aztec and Inca Empires? They were destroyed.
What was the legacy left in Latin America, as a result of colonization by Europeans? Rigid class system based on birth and dictatorial rule.
What was the effect of European colonization of the Americas on Africa? Many of the strongest men were seized from villages, creating Diaspora (spreading) of Africans in the Americas.
How did most Africans arrive in the Americas? They were forcefully migrated (brought against their will) and enslaved.
What was the relationship of the colonies to the parent countries, in regards to social and cultural patterns? Colonies often imitated the culture and social patterns of their parent countries.
What areas of Asia were colonized by small groups of merchants from Europe? India, the Indies, China
What three countries influenced Asia through trading companies especially in India and the Indies? Portugal, the Netherlands ( the Dutch), England (Britain)
Corn, potatoes, and tobacco influenced lifestyles of what continent, as a result of the Colombian Exchange? Europe
The introduction of what two products changed the lifestyles of American Indians? horses (transportation) cattle (disputes over land with ranchers and long drives)
What aspect of the Colombian Exchange had the most drastic effect on American Indians? Diseases that were brought to the Americas especially smallpox.
What made slavery in the Americas under European colonial rule different from slavery in the past? 1st time slavery was based on race.
What led to the use of enslaved Africans in American colonies? Shortage of labor to grow cash crops.
What was the effect of the European plantation system on the economies of indigenous people of the Caribbean and the Americas? Their economies were destroyed, while European economies flourished.
What was the effect of the European plantation system on the environment of the Caribbean and the Americas? Their environment was severely damaged by mining fro precious metals and other natural resources.
Slaves, sugar, and rum were three products transported on the trade pattern known as the _________________________ trade. Triangular Trade
To what continents (2) were gold and silver from the Americas transported? Europe & Asia
What was the effect of exploration of precious metal from the Americas on indigenous empires of the Americas? It destroyed indigenous empires of the Americas
What was the effect of exploration of precious metal from the Americas on Spain and international trade? Spain became wealthy and powerful, and European nations competed for trade.
What continents were linked through the Triangular Trade? Europe, the Americas, and Africa
After the conquest of Constantinople, what empire emerged as a political economic power? Ottoman Empire
What Muslim territory did the Ottomans bring under their rule? North Africa and Southwest Asia
What body of land is most associated with the Ottoman Empire? (Where did it begin?) Asia Minor (modern-day )Turkey
What did the Ottomans rename Constantinople after conquering it? Istanbul
What did the Ottomans do to the city of Constantinople (in regards to its place in the empire) after capturing it? Made it their capital.
Southwest Asia Southeastern Europe Balkan Peninsula North Africa All of these areas were conquered by which empire? Ottoman Empire
What religion was a unifying force in the Ottoman Empire, because it was accepting of other religions? Islam
What were two goods that were traded by the Ottoman Empire? Coffee & Ceramics
The Mughals (Moguls) were descended from what nomadic people? Mongols
In what area did the Mughals establish their empire? Northern India
What was the relationship of the Mughal Empire to the British Textile Industry? The British textile industry grew out of contact and trade with the Indian textile industry under Mughal rule.
What type of interaction did the Mughals have with Europeans? The established European trading outposts.
What religion was brought to India as a result of Mughal rule? Islam
What architecural work is most associated with the Mughal Empire? Taj Mahal
What goods were traded by Southern India (highly sought after by Europeans)? Silks Spices Gems
How did China attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? Creating foreign enclaves who established specific trading ports and rules for trade.
How did Japan attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? Isolation (closed country policy)
Which country established an imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade? China
An increase in European demand for goods such as tea and porcelain caused what country to exercise control of its trade with Europe? China
Which country was characterized by a powerless emperor and was controlled by a military leader? Japan
What is a shogun? A military ruler in Japan
What was the purpose of Japan's policy of isolation? To limit foreign influence.
What raw materials did Africa export? Ivory and Gold
What was Africa's main export in the triangular trade? Slaves
From what continents did Africa import manufactured goods? Europe, Asia, and the Americas
What were some new food products imported to Africa, as a result of European colonization? Corn and Peanuts
"an economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient" What term fits this definition? Mercantilism
On what theory was mercantilism based? that colonies exist to for the benefit of the mother country.
For what did European maritime nations compete? Overseas markets, colonies, and resources.
-New money and banking systems created - economic practices such as mercantilism evolved -colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country What type of revolution was this? Commercial Revolution
-reasons of observation -systematic measurement -changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it What revolution does this list describe? Scientific Revolution
Who developed heliocentric theory? Nicolas Copernicus
What is the heliocentric theory? That the sun not the earth is at the center of the solar system.
Who discovered planetary motion? Johannes Kepler
Who used the telescope to support heliocentric theory? Galileo Galilei
Who formulated the law of gravity? Sir Isaac Newton
Who discovered the circulation of blood? William Harvey
What important changes came from the scientific revolution? -emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature -formulation of scientific method -expansion of scientific knowledge
Series of European Monarchs who increased the power of their central governments led to the name: Age of _____________________ Age of Absolutism
What are two main characteristics of absolute monarchs? Rule by divine right Centralization of power
Whose the most famous absolute monarch from France "I am the State" Louis XIV
Why did Louis XIV have the Palace of Versailles built? Symbol of his Royal Power
What absolute monarch was responsible for the westernization of Russia? Peter the Great
What Russian city was built for the single purpose of providing Russia with a port city for European Trade? St. Petersburg
Political Democracy rests on the principle that government derives its power from the consent of the _________________________. Consent of the Governed
Who was responsible for ending absolute monarchy in England and the execution of Charles I? (One main figure) Oliver Cromwell
The "Restoration" referred to the restoration of what after Oliver Cromwell's death? The Monarchy (Charles II)
The foundations of English rights began with the Jury Trial, Magna Carta, and Common Law. What two revolutions further developed English Rights? English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution
What monarchs were put into power during the Glorious Revolution? William & Mary
As a result of the Glorious Revolution what happened to Parliamentary Power as compared to Royal Power? Parliamentary Power Increased. Royal Power Decreased.
What document from 1689 established rights for all Englishmen? English Bill of Rights
What American conflict was fueled by Enlightenment ideas? The American Revolution
What American document was largely inspired by Enlightenment ideas? Declaration of Independence
-Applied reason to the human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world -Stimulated religious tolerance Fueled democratic revolutions around the world What age is this describing? The Enlightenment
Which Enlightenment thinker wrote "Leviathan"? Thomas Hobbes
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that humans exist in a primitive "state of nature" and consent to be governed for self-protection? Thomas Hobbes
Which Enlightenment thinker wrote "Two Treatises on Government"? John Locke
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that people are sovereign and consent to be governed for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property? John Locke
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that the best form of government includes a separation of powers? Montesquieu
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that government is a contract between rulers and the people? Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Which Enlightenment thinker believed that religious tolerance should triumph over religious fanaticism, as well as the separation of Church and State? Voltaire
Which Enlightenment thinker wrote "The Social Contract"? Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Which Enlightenment thinker wrote "The Spirit of Laws"? Montesquieu
Political philosophies of the _______________________ fueled revolution in the Americas and France. Enlightenment
Ideas from what intellectual movement were incorporated into the Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights Enlightenment
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment and French participation in the American Revolution affect the French people? It changed the way the saw their own government, causing them to overthrow their absolute monarchy and start a new government.
What event, in which mobs of people stole ammunition and slaughtered prison guards, has become symbolic of revolution in France? Storming of the Bastille
What is the name given to the time in which France was under the dictatorial rule of Maximilian Robespierre, and "enemies of the state" were guillotined (including fellow radicals)? Reign of Terror
What happened to the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI as a result of the French Revolution? It ended. (after being deposed, imprisoned, he was executed by the Jacobins)
What political figure rose in power as a result of the French Revolution, eventually controlling all of France, and much of Europe? Napoleon Bonaparte
The sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries brought many changes in the arts, literature, and political philosophy. This time period is often referred to as the Age of _______________? Age of Reason
Johann Sebastian Bach was a composer from which artistic period? Baroque
To what artistic period did the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart belong? Classical Period
What novelist from the Age of Reason is known for his novel, "Don Quixoite", about a man on a seemingly insane quest? Miguel de Cervantes
What new form of literature was developed in Europe during the Age of Reason? Novel
Which nineteenth century painter is known for his heroic paintings, transitioning to the Romantic School (Romanticism)? Eugene Delacroix
During the Age of Reason, new schools of art developed. What types of subjects were depicted in these "schools"? Classical Subjects Public Events Natural Scenes Living People (Portraits)
What new technology from the Age of Reason provided improved year-round transport and trade across Europe? All-Weather Roads
New designs in farm tools from the Age of Reason increased productivity, leading to the ______________________ revolution. Agricultural
How did improvements in ship design during the Age of Reason affect profit margins? It lowered the cost of transport increasing profits.
Havanna, Mexico City, Lima, Sao Paolo, and Buenos Aires were outposts of colonial authority in Latin America. Match them with their country?. Havanna- Cuba Mexico City- Mexico Lima- Peru Sao Paolo- Brazil Buenos Aires- Argentina
Colonial govt.'s mirrored home govt.'s, Catholicism influenced the development of colonies, major element of economy was the mining of precious metals, major cities est. as outposts. These are characteristics of the Colonial System in what area? Latin America
Viceroys (Colonial Officers) were conquistadors who were given governmental authority by the Spanish crown. Where would they have been born? In Europe (Spain)
What was the term for people of European heritage) especially Spain who were born in the Americas? Creoles
What was the term for people of mixed heritage (Native & European) in Latin America? Mestizo
Which group of people in Haiti rebelled against the French and won their independence? Slaves
What former slave led the Haitian rebellion against the French? Toussaint L'Ouverture
Which person is known for starting the Mexican Independence movement? Miguel Hidalgo
Colonies from what three European countries gained independence during the Latin American independence movements? Spain Portugal France
Mexico Haiti Colombia Venezuela Brazil What do these Latin American countries have in common? They all gained independence from Europe in the 1800's
Toussaint L'Ouverture defeated the armies of three foreign powers, Spain, France, and Britain. Where those three countries involved? They all had interest in the Caribbean islands and used slave labor.
-Creole -Native resident who led revolutionary efforts -Liberated the northern areas of Latin America Who is this describing? Simon Bolivar
How did the Monroe Doctrine affect revolutions in Latin America? It acknowledged them as independent and warned European countries not to try and retake them.
What document, issued by President James Monroe in 1823, stated that the American continents should not be considered for future colonization? Monroe Doctrine
According to the Monroe Doctrine, how would the United States regard any European attempt to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere? As a threat to its own peace and safety.
In contrast to continental Europe, the United Kingdom expanded political rights through legislative means and made _________________ illegal in the British Empire? Slavery
Napoleon attempted, unsuccessfully, to unify Europe under French domination (the Continental System). What were his three biggest errors? Attacking Britain The Peninsular War Invading Russia
Napoleon made many improvements in France, one of which was a comprehensive system of laws that reduced injustices, though it limited free speech. What was it called? Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's rule awakened feelings of ________________________ pride, and led to the growth of _________________________. National Pride & Nationalism
After Napoleon's defeat, five powers of Europe met to discuss how to restore the "balance of power" in Europe. What was this series of meetings called? Congress of Vienna
In addition to the Restoration of the monarchies and a new political map of Europe, new political philosophies came as a result of the Congress of Vienna. What were they? Liberalism & Conservatism
National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism, which led to increasing discontent with the terms of the Congress of Vienna. What happened in 1848 to increase nationalist tensions? Unsuccessful revolutions across Europe (Liberal gains were lost and conservatism regained its hold)
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? Because of its natural resources and the invention and improvement of the steam engine.
Why did the spread of the Industrial Revolution to Europe and the United States accelerate colonialism and imperialism? Increased demand for raw material from the Americas, Asia, and Africa (rising economic powers wanted to control materials and markets)
The Industrial Revolution was related to what British Agricultural movement? The British Enclosure Movememnt
The Industrial Revolution led to the rise of the _________________ system and the demise of the ______________________ industries. Factory System & Cottage Industries
What three industries were key to the Industrial Revolution? Cotton Textile Iron Steel
The Spinning Jenny was invented by ______________________. James Hargreaves
The steam engine was invented by ______________________. James Watt
The cotton gin was invented by ______________________. Eli Whitney
Who invented a new process for making steel that helped to produce the Industrial Revolution? Henry Bessemer
Who developed a smallpox vaccine that improved the lives of people living during the Industrial Revolution? Edward Jenner
What important advancement in science/ medicine was made by Louis Pasteur? Discovery of Bacteria
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the population of industrialized countries? it increased
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on the standards of living for most, though not all people? Increased
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on transportation? It improved transportation
What term describes the movement of large groups of people to live and work in cities as a result of the Industrial Revolution? Urbanization
What book, written by Adam Smith, supported capitalism and market competition? Wealth of Nations
What was the role of capitalism and market competition in the Industrial Revolution? both fueled the Industrial Revolution
What class of people increased due to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution? Middle Class
What ideas did poor working conditions and unequal distribution of wealth as a result of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution lead to? Socialism & Communism
Who wrote the "Communist Manifesto" (with Friedrich Engels) as well as Das Capital? Karl Marx
What economic theories believe in redistribution of wealth? Socialism & Communism
What was the effect of the cotton gin on slavery on the American slave plantations? It increased the demand for slavery.
As a result of the Industrial Revolution, the United States and Britain outlawed what practices? Slave Trade and then Slavery
What groups of people entered the workforce as cheap labor, as a result of the Industrial Revolution? Women & Children
Concern over child labor led to the introduction of __________________________. Reforms
What was the effect of the Industrial Revolution on education? Increased Education
The Industrial Revolution led to increased demands for ____________________ by women. Suffrage (The Right to Vote)
What did the rise of labor unions encourage worker-organized strikes to demand? Increased wages and improved working conditions.
Labor unions attempted to gain workers' rights through __________________ ___________________ between labor and management. Collective Bargaining
The factory system led to harsh working conditions with men competing with ________________ and _________________ for jobs. Women & Children
Industrial nations in Europe needed ___________________ resources and markets to expand their economies. Natural
Industrialized nations competed to control Africa and _____________ in order to secure their own _______________ and political success. Asia / Economic
What spread the economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world? Imperialism
What are two forms of resistance to imperialism? Armed Conflicts & Intellectual Movements
European_____________________, ______________________, and _______________________ power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms. Economic Military Political
What was the effect of industrially produced goods on colonial markets and traditional industries? Colonial markets were flooded and traditional ways were displaced.
Colonies Protectorates Spheres of Influence What are these all forms of? Forms of Imperialism
What resistance to foreign influence in China led to an armed conflict with European troops in 1900? The Boxer Revellion
What caused a rise of nationalism in countries like India and China in the mid 1800's? Colonization & Imperialism
When was the first Indian Nationalist party founded? mid 1800's
What country was responsible for opening Japan to trade in the late 1800's? The United States
What massive project in Egypt was linked to European imperialism? Suez Canal
European Domination European Conflicts Carried to Colonies Christian Missionary Efforts Spheres of Influence in China East India Company's Domination of Indian States, etc. What are all of these examples of? Imperialism in Africa and Asia
Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps. Nationalistic feelings. Diplomatic failures. Imperialism Competition over colonies. Militarism These are all... Causes of World War I
What single event started a chain of events that led to World War I? Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Who was the American president throughout World War I? Woodrow Wilson
What was the significance of the Bolshevik revolution in regards to World War I? As a result Russia left the war.
What event "tipped the balance" in World War I, allowing the Allies to win the war? The United States entered the war.
Which empires ended as a result of World War I? Russian Imperial Ottoman German Austro-Hungarian
Why did the colonies participate in World War I? They thought it would help them gain independence (or at least more rights)
Who was the leader of Germany during World War I? Kaiser Wilhelm II
Why did the United States ratify the Treaty of Versailles? The Senate didn't want the U.S. to join the League of Nations
Germany forced to accept responsibility for the war and loss of territory and to pay reparations. Limited German military. League of Nations These are all part of the _____________________________ Treaty of Versailles
World War I came at an enormous cost in lives, __________________ and social disruption. property
Who was the tsar (czar) of Russia in World War I? Nicholas II
Why did Russia erupt in Revolution while fighting in World War I? Series of military defeats and high casualties led to frustration with the tsarist (czarist) government.
Defeat in what war contributed to the 1917 Russian revolution? Russo-Japanese
This "man of steel" was the second leader of the Soviet Russia. Fiver Year Plans, collective farms, state industrialization, and use of secret police were all part of his dictatorial rule. Joseph Stalin
This man was the first leader of Communist Russia, and his New Economic Policy helped bring some economic stability to Russia. Who was he? Vladimir Lenin
What was the name given to the revolution that led to the rise of communism in Russia? Bolshevik Revolution
- International Cooperative Organization - Established to Prevent Future Wars - Failed because it did not have the power to enforce decisions. What is this describing? The League of Nations
Which world power did not become a member of the League of Nations because it did not want to be involved in European affairs (and didn't want European involvement in their affairs)? The United States
Why did the League of Nations fail? It failed because it did not have the power to enforce decisions.
What was the mandate system? It is a system in which Allied Powers (France & Great Britain mainly) govern territories formerly controlled by nations defeated in WWI (mainly Germany & the Ottoman Empire) until they can "self-govern."
Which areas of the Middle East were under French control under the "mandate system," after World War I? Syria & Lebanon
What happened to the Ottoman Empire that planted the seeds for future conflicts in the Middle East? Its division through the mandate system.
Why was the mandate system created? It was created so that Britain and France could "get their foot in the region."
After WWI, European economies were struggling. How did that compare to the economy of the United States? The United States was expanding its production capacities and becoming the dominant force in the global economy.
- German Reparations - Expansion of production capacities & dominance of the U.S. in the global economy. - High Protective Tariffs - Excessive Expansion of Credit - Stock Market Crash of 1929 What were these causes of? Worldwide Depression in the 1930's
What was the effect of worldwide depression on employment in industrialized countries? Worldwide depression led to high levels of unemployment in industrialized countries.
What was the impact of worldwide depression on banking and credit? Banks failed and Credit collapsed.
What was the effect of worldwide depression on prices of goods in global trade? They collapsed.
What was the impact of worldwide depression on the role of the Nazi Party in Germany? The Nazi Party became MORE influential in Germany, largely because they put the blame for the economic collapse on European Jews.
- 5 Year Plans - Collectivization of Farms - State Industrialization - Secret Police Whose policies does this describe? Joseph Stalin
What was Joseph Stalin's effect on communism in his country? He further established it into the Soviet Union (It was his own unique type of communism, though)
What was the Great Purge? Stalin's attempt to get rid of anyone he saw as a threat to his rule. Millions of Russians died under Stalin's dictatorial rule.
- Inflation and Depression - Democratic Government Weakened - Anti-Semitism Extreme Nationalism - German Occupation of Nearby Territories What period in German history does this describe? The interwar Period (The period between WWI and WWII)
- Rise of Fascism - Ambition to Restore Glory to Rome - Invasion of Ethiopia Whose rule during the Interwar period does this describe? Benito Mussolini
Who was the Emperor of Japan during the Interwar Period, as well as during World War II? Emperor Hirohito
Who was Hideki Tojo? Top Japanese general, deemed largely responsible for Japanese actions in World War II. (He was Minister of War and then Prime Minister of Japan. After WWII, he was executed as a war criminal)
- Militarism - Industrialization of the country. - Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China What country, during the Interwar Period, does this describe? Japan
How did the Treaty of Versailles affect economic and political conditions in Europe? It worsened the economies and political conditions in Europe.
Which country emerged as a world power after WWI and conducted aggressive imperialistic policies in Asia? Japan
Why did dictatorial governments emerge in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the U.S.S.R. after WWI? Nationalism and weak economic and political environments.
What areas of the world were "theaters of war" during World War II? Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific Islands
What is appeasement? Giving an aggressor what they demand, in hopes that they will end their aggression.
What two countries met with Germany and followed a policy of appeasement in an attempt to avoid further conflict? Great Britain & France
What was the relationship of the League of Nations to start of World War II? Its inability to enforce its decisions gave Hitler the confidence he needed to invade Austria, then other countries.
What is the term for the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group? Genocide
What event was the result of a climate of hatred against Jews in Europe for centuries, Hitler's belief in a master race and the defeat of Germany in WWI, along with economic depression in Germany that was blamed on German Jews? The Holocaust
What was the Final Solution? Hitler's plan to ride Europe of Jews, using extermination camps and gas chambers.
Which group of people were victims of genocide by leaders of the Ottoman Empire? Armenian People
Which groups of people were victims of genocide by Joseph Stalin in Russia. Peasants, government and military leaders, and members of the elite.
What groups of people were the victims of genocide by Pol Pot in Cambodia? Artists, technicians, former government officials, monks, minorities, and other educated individuals.
What group of people were victims of genocide by the Hutu in Rwanda? Tutsi minority of Rwanda
Which two countries were established as the major world powers after WWII? The United States and the USSR
What was the "Iron Curtain?" the division of Europe between democratic and communist governments (Berlin was divided into East- Communist and West- Democratic)
What was the purpose of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? to provide a code of conduct for people under the protection of their government. to protect the "inherent dignity and... the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family"
What international cooperative organizations were created after WWII? United Nations NATO Warsaw Pact
What were the war crimes trials? Military and political leaders were tried for crimes against humanity (atrocious acts of violence) during WWII Example- The Nuremberg Trials tried Nazi soldiers for treatment of Jews in concentration camps.
What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan? To promote the reconstruction of defeated powers in order to resist the spread of communism.
What cooperative organization was formed to protect the United States and Western Europe after WWII? NATO
What cooperative organization was formed to protect the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe after WWII? (It was a response to the formation of NATO) Warsaw Pact
In an effort to assist in the reconstruction of Germany after WWII, what type of government was installed in West Berlin? A democratic government was installed.
After WWII, Germany and Berlin were divided among what four countries? Why those four? United States Great Britain France USSR (Soviet Union) Because they were the Allied Powers that defeated Hitler
What was a result of installing a democratic government in West Germany after World War II? Germany emerged as an economic power in postwar Europe
After World War II, the United States occupied Japan under whose administration? (Hint- It's a general from WWII who was familiar with the Pacific) Douglas MacArthur
What did Japan Pursue after World War II? Democracy and Economic Development
What did the United States guarantee Japan, in exchange for the elimination of Japan's military offensive capabilities (It wouldn't be able to attack any more countries) ? The United States would guarantee Japanese security.
What happened to Japan, as a result of reconstruction efforts there after WWII? It embraced democracy, pursued economic development, pursued peaceful economic development, and emerged as a dominant economy in Asia.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council are: The United Sttaes Great Britain France Russia (former USSR) China Why those five? They are the five major countries that fought against the Germans and/or the Japanese in WWII.
United Nations NATO Warsaw Pact What do these organizations have in common? They are all international cooperative organizations formed after World War II.
What does NATO stand for? North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Who established and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948? (What group?) The United Nations
The Yalta Conference, which took place in 1945, planned for dealing with post-war Germany, though the war hadn't ended. What 3 leaders were present at this conference? Churchill (England) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (USA) Joseph Stalin (USSR) The BIG 3
How did the Yalta Conference contribute to the beginnings of the Cold War? Neither side trusted each other, and each had their own goals for after the war.
Why did the Soviet Union want to control Eastern Europe after WWII? The Soviet Union was in ruins. After the war, building were destroyed, and one in four men had died. They needed the resources these countries could provide.
How did nuclear weapons contribute to the Cold War rivalry between the US and the USSR? The Soviet Union was surprised by the US development of nuclear weapons, and pledged to catch up to the US in military might, in order to "defend themselves."
What was the policy adopted by President Truman that was directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the spread of communism? containment
The presence of what military invention influenced relations between the United States and the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War? (It was developed in 1945) nuclear weapons (the Atomic bomb)
The Cold War stemmed from competition between what two countries? The United States and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)
The Cold War influenced policies of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. toward other nations and conflicts around the world. Name the two "wars" that were fought during the Cold War. Korea & Vietnam
What crisis came from finding that the Soviet Union was placing strategic weapons on an island country near the U.S.? The Cuban Missile Crisis
According to the theory of deterrence, what should be done with nuclear weapons? make more countries with more weapons will deter other countries from attacking them, out of self-preservation.
What event had the greatest symbolism of the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe? tearing down the Berlin Wall
What ultimately caused the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe? the collapse of the Soviet economy and nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries.
What happened to countries that had been absorbed into the Soviet Union after its economic system collapsed? They declared independence and left the Soviet Union.
What happened to NATO after the collapse of the Soviet Union? it expanded
What conflict could be described as democracy and the free enterprise system vs. dictatorship and communism? the Cold War
What were Soviet satellite nations, and where were they predominantly located? Soviet-controlled countries, mainly in Eastern Europe
What was the term used to describe the separation of Europe into mostly democratic countries in the West and communist countries in the East (through imposed governments in many "buffer" countries)? the Iron Curtain
Warsaw Pact countries began to demand self-rule from the Soviet Union. What is the term for a person who supports their country's independence from other powers? a nationalist
What communist country refused to align itself with the Soviet Union? (Hint: It is the largest communist country) China
Created by: mjones0209