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Biochem Exam III

Chapter 16 KB and TAG Metabolism

Albumin a signle protein that is used to transfer free FA and XX in the body
Arachadonic Acid Non-essential FA; 20 C w 4 =; an omega 6 FA with the terminal = 6 bonds in from the omega end; precursor of prostaglandin synthesis; cleaved by phospholipase A2 -->1st prostaglandins by p. endoperoxidase synthase; found on C2 of Phosphatidylinositol
Biotin coenzyme that is necessary in conversion of propionyl CoA (3 C product of FA oxidation w odd # carbons) to D-methylmalonyl CoA. Carboxylation rxn that uses CO2 and ATP
Carnitine:palmitoyl transferase I (CPT 1) enzyme in beta oxidation of FA; FA CoA needs to be transported from cytosol into mitochondrial matrix. This enzyme uses carnitine to do a mini transfer of CoA- takes the CoA from the Fatty Acyl and transfers it onto carnitine
Carnitine:palmitoyl transferase II (CPT 2) enzyme that transfers the CoA from carnitine onto the fatty acyl inside the mitochondria during beta oxidation of FA
Citrate Citrate from the TCA cycle is taken out of the mitochondria into the cytosol where it is converted by ATP Citrate Lyase into Acetyl CoA (Releases OAA) in FA synthesis
Citrate Lyase enzyme that converts citrate --> acetyl CoA during FA sunthesis and release OAA and uses eneergy
Coenzyme A CoA is added to FA in order to activate them and allow them to be re-used for synthesis or Beta oxidation. it is found w acetyl coA, Malonyl CoA, FA CoA, HMG CoA; CoA is unable to move acorss the mitochondrial membrane
Cytosolic Acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA cannot move across mito membrane so during FA synthesis that occurs in cytosol, acetyl coa is converted into citrate which is brought out to cytosol, releasing OAA
Cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase Enzyme that converts malate into pyruvate. This generates NADPH which is one of the ways in which fatty acid synthase can get its NADPH to make fat.
DHAP: Glycerol from fatty acids (after fatty acid metabolism) is converted into DHAP in the liver to go back into glycolysis or gluconeogenesis
ER Site of both elongation of fatty acids and desaturation of fatty acid chains. IP3 binds to receptors on the ER and causes release of calcium which activates protein kinases. HMG CoA Reductase is an integral membrane protein of the ER
Fatty Acyl CoA Fatty acids are only activated once they are bound to a CoA
Fatty Acyl CoA Synthetase: Enzyme that converted fatty acids into activated form by adding CoA so that the fat can then be resynthesized into TAG, etc.
Generation of palmitate from glucose:
Hormone Sensitive Lipase Lipase that releases fatty acids from fat (activated by PKA via adenyl cyclase)
HMG CoA Synthase: Acetoacyl CoAHMG CoA, occurs in the cytosol and is the first steps in both cholesterol synthesis and ketone body synthesis. It combines the 3rd acetyl CoA with acetoacetyl CoA.
HMG CoA Lyase: HMG HMG CoAAcetoacetate (which can be reduced to 3 hydroxybutyrate). This is the step in ketone body synthesis that releases an acetyl CoA to produce a KB
HMG CoA 6 carbon molecule that either is converted into acetoacetate in ketone body synthesis or mevalonate in cholesterol synthesis
Mitochondria: where formation of heme takes place, first two steps of urea cycle, cardiolipin essential part of inner mitochondria membrane, liver mitochondria creates ketone bodies, beta oxidation of fatty acids
Malic Enzyme Converts malate to pyruvate which generates NADPH that can be used for fatty acid synthase
Malonyl CoA 3 carbon molecule, converted from acetyl CoAMalonyl CoA by acetyl CoA carboxylase which is then converted into palmitic acid by fatty acid synthase
Micelles Soluble mixed balls of fat that are created in order to bring fat to the intestinal lining of the small intestine (enterocytes) in order for fat to be re-absorbed, and then they are reabsorbed
Created by: cln8692
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