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Pigments, Minerals and Cytoplasmic Granules in the Histology Lab

Artifact pigment deposited in tissue as a result of chemical action
Artifact Mercury, chrome, or formalin pigments
Exogenous pigment Formed externally then taken into the body
Endogenous pigment Formed within the body
Carbon Exogenous pigment commonly found in lungs
Asbestos fibers Bifringent
After inhalation they loose their bifringence because the fibers become coated with iron coated protein. Asbestos
Tattoos, metals Exogenous pigment
Copper Wilsons Disease
Endogenous hematogenous pigments are classified as _ or _ hematogenous (derived from blood) or nonhematogenous
Hemoglobin breaks down into... Globin: protein that is returned to amino acid pool Heme: iron-coatining
Heme breaks down into... Green bile pigment (biliverdin) or iron (hemosiderin) or resused
Endogenous nonhematogenous pigment Lipidic (lipofuchsin or ceroid) Non lipidic (melanin)
Lipofuchsin wear and tear pigment
Lipofuchsin yellow-brown pigment that gather in older patients in permanent cells (Heat, liver, neurons)
Ceroid brown-yellow rarely seen in humans
Urates Deposited from gouty tophi
Urate crystal fixative Absolute alcohol
Paneth cells are destroyed by Acetic acid
Agrentaffin cells are destroyed by Alcoholic fixatives
Chromaffin granules are present where? Adrenal medulla
Chromaffin granules are best preserved by Chromates fixative (Orth)
Prussian blue for ferric iron (Fe3+) Detection of ferric iron
Prussian blue for ferric iron 10% NBF
Prussian blue for ferric iron 4-5 micrometers
Prussian blue for ferric iron control Section containing ferric iron
Prussian blue for ferric iron 1.Potassium ferrocyanide/hydrochloric acid mix 2. wash 3. counterstain with nuclear fast red 4. wash 5. dehydrate, clear mount
Prussian blue for ferric iron results Nuclei and hemofuchsin: Bright red Hemosiderin (Iron): Blue Background: Pink
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron (Fe2+) Dectection of ferrous iron
Ferrous iron Very toxic
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron 10% NBF or alcohol
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron 4-5 micrometers
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron control Section containing ferrous iron must be used
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron 1. Ferricyanide solution 2. wash 3. Counterstain nuclear fast red 4. wash 5. dehydrate, clear, mount
Turnbull blue stain for ferrous iron results Ferrous iron: Blue Background: Pink-red
Schmorl technique Indication of reducing substances present in tissue (Melanin, agrentaffin granules, formalin pigment will be stained)
Schmorl technique 10% NBF
Schmorl technique 4-5 micrometers
Schmorl technique control Section containing melanin or agrentaffin granules
Schmorl technique 1. Ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide 2. rinse 3. Mayer mucicarmine 4. wash 5. Counterstain metanil yellow 6. rinse 7. Dehydrate, clear mount
Schmorl technique results Reducing substances: Blue-green Goblet cells, mucin: Rose Background: Yellow- green
Fontana-Masson Demonstration of Agrentaffin substances (Melanin), granules of carcinoid tumor, and some neurosecretory granules
Fontana-Masson 4-5 micrometers
Fontana-Masson control Section of skin with known melanin
Fontana-Masson 1. Silver nitrate 2. rinse 3. gold chloride 4. rinse 5. sodium thiosulfate 6. rinse 7. Counterstain in nuclear fast red 8. wash 9. Dehydrate, clear and mount
Fontana-Masson results Melanin: Black Argentaffin granules: Black Nuclei: Pink
Grimelius Demonstration of argyrophil granules in the neurosecretory tumors
Grimelius Cant reduce silver on its on when used in this stain
Grimelius 10% NBF
Grimelius 4-5 micrometers
Grimelius control Argryophil carcinoid tumor, small intestine
Grimelius 1. Silver 2. drain 3. reducing 4.rinse 5. repeat step 1 6. drain 7. rinse 8. counterstain with nuclear fast red 9. dehydrate, clear mount
Grimelius results Argentaffin granules: Dark brown to black Argyrophil granules: Dark brown to black Nuclei: Red Background: Pale yellow-brown
Churukian-Schenk To demonstrate argyrophil granules in neurosecretory tumors
Churukian-Schenk 10% NBF
Churukian-Schenk 4-5 micrometers
Churukian-Schenk control Argyrophil positive carcinoid tumor preferred
Churukian-Schenk 1. Silver nitrate 2. rinse 3. Reducing solution 4. rinse 5. Silver nitrate 6. rinse 7. reducing solution 8. rinse 9. counterstain nuclear fast red 10. rinse 11. dehydrate, clear, mount
Churukian-Schenk results Argyrophil granules: Black Argentaffin granules: Black Nuclei: Red Background: Yellow-brown
Gomori Methenamine-silver method Demonstration of urates in tissue
Gomori Methenamine-silver method Absolute alcohol
Gomori Methenamine-silver method 4-5 micrometers
Gomori Methenamine-silver method 1. Methnamine silver 2. rinse 3. sodium thiosulfate 4. rinse 5. counterstain with light green 6. dehydrate, clear, mount
Gomori Methenamine-silver method results Urates: Black Background: Green
Bile stain (Hall) Demonstrates the presence of bilirubin in tissue
Bile stain (Hall) 10% NBF
Bile stain (Hall) 4-5 micrometers
Bile stain (Hall) 1. wash 2. Stain with Fouchet reagent 3. wash 4. stain with van gieson 5. dehydrate clear mount
Bile stain (Hall) results Bile or bilirubin: Emerald green to olive drab Background: Yellow
Von Kossa To demonstrate calcium
Von Kossa Alcohols or 10% NBF
Von Kossa 4-5 micrometers
Von Kossa 1. Silver nitrate 2. rinse 3. sodium thiosulfate 4. wash 5. counterstain NFR 6. wash 7. dehydrate clear and mount
Von Kossa results Calcium salts: Black Background: Red
Alizarin red S calcium stain To identify the presence of calcium
Alizarin red S calcium stain 10% NBF or alcoholic formalin
Alizarin red S calcium stain 4-5 micrometers
Alizarin red S calcium stain 1.Alizarian red S 2. blot 3. Dehydrate clear mount
Alizarin red S calcium stain results Calcium: Orange-red
Alizarin red S calcium stain Bifringent result
Rhodamine To demonstrate copper (Wilsons disease)
Rhodamine 10% NBF
Rhodamine 6-8 micrometers
Rhodamine 1. Rhodamine 2. Mayer heme 3. rinse 4. sodium borate 5. rinse 6. dehydrate, clear mount
Rhodamine results Copper: Bright red to red yellow Nuclei: Light blue
Created by: Ziek98



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