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power is the ability of individuals to realize their will in human affairs even if it involves resistance of others
the state political institution- is an arrangment that consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory. state rests on FORCE
force power whose basis is the threat or application of punishment
social surplus goods and services over and above those necessary for survival
welfare state comprehensive system of universal benefits that guaranteed the citizenry a basic standard of living
bureaucracy explicit rules and procedures based on a division of function and authority
laws norms from concious thought, planning and direction, enforced by state
communist manifesto the state is an instrument that is manipulated virtually at will by capitalist class
authority legitimate power
traditional authority (weber) power is legitimized by sanctity of age old customers
legal-rationed authority (weber) power is legitimized by explicit rules and rational procedures that define the rigghts and duties of the occupants of given positions
charismatic authority (weber) power is legitimized by the extraordinary superhuman or supernatural attributes people attribute to a leader
politics refers to process by which people and groups acquire and exercise power
political power when power is organized and wielded by the state
Government entails those political processes that have to do with authoritive formulating of rules and policies that are binding and pervasive throughout a society
totalitarianism "total state" one in which the gov. undertakes to control all parts of the society and all aspects of social life such as in N. Korea.
Authoritarianism political system in which the gov. tolerates little or no opposition to its rule but permits nongovernmental centers of influence and allows debate on some issues of public policy
democracy political system which the powers government derive from the consent of the governed& which regular constitution avenues exist for changing government officials.permits the population a significant voice in decision,allows populace broad/equal citizenship
direct democracy face-to-face participation and decision making by citizens
representative democracy officials are held accountable to the public through periodics elections that confirm them in power
interest group organizations of people who share common concerns or points of view.They are limited because they are often in opposition to interests of other groups which the governing officials also have to keep in mind
interests common concerns or points of view
civil society social realm of mediating groups, networks and institutions that sustain the public life outside the worlds of the state and economy
political party organization designed to gain control of the government by putting its people in public office.Not same as interest groups because the control of government is an end goal for a political party
special-interest group primarily seek benefits from which members would derive more gains than the society as a whole.(chambers of commerce, trade associations, labor unions, farm organizations.)
public-interest group pursue policies that presumably would be of no greater benefit to their members than to larger society
political action committees (PACs) special-interest groups that have attracted considerable controversy and are set up to elect or defeat candidates, but not through the organization of a political party
mass media consists of organizations that convey information to the public- newspapers, magazines, telivision, radio, motion pictures and the internet (2/3 from tv)
socialist economy the government directly controls the economy, in many cases setting the prices and wages and deciding what will be produced
capitalist economy the government oversees and sets parameters for the economy, but in many ways leaves the economy alone, allowing the market to decide what the economy will do
market economy decisions about what will be produced how much will be produced, and what products cost are made in economic transactions between consumers and producers
consumer sovereignty cut back on goods with falling prices and increase goods with rising prices
command economy state or central planning authority determines the items that will be produced and their quantities
oligopoly market dominated by a few firms, the giants of U.S. business such as General Motors IBM and General electric
core regions geographical areas that dominate the world economy and exploit the rest of the system
periphery regions consists of areas that provide raw materials to the core and are exploited by it
multinational corporations firms that have their central office in one country and subsidiaries in other countries
corporate interlocks networks of individuals who serve on the board of directors of multiple corporations
changes in work experience past 160 yrs farming declined and service industry rises
significance of work self interest and works position defines persons position in structure
alienation pervasive sense of powerlessness, meaninglessness,normlessness, isolation, and self estrangement.This happens when individuals fail to find their work fulfilling and satisfying.
job burnout sense of boredom, apathy, reduced efficiency, fatigue, frustration and despondency
economy social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Funcitonalist perspective on state (4 primary functions of state) 1 Planning and Direction, 2 enforcement of norms, 3 arbitration of conflicting interests, 4 protection against other societies
conflict perspective on state state is a vehicle by which one or more groups impose their values and stratification system upon other groups
ideal type (weber) concepts that sociologists construct to portray the principal characteristics of a phenomenon
3 parts of totalitarianism 1. monolithic political party, 2. compelling ideology, 3. pervasive social control
Marxist perspective political processes b understood in terms of the ways which major social institutions r organized.Political processes r affected by class interests&conflict.
elitist perspective undertook to show that the concentration of power in a small group of elites is inevitable within modern societies. Major decisions made by a power elite
pluralist perspective No one group really runs the government. Interest groups are the basic feature of organized political life
liberal market economy closer to capitalist ideal and allocate and coordinate resources primarily through markets
coordinate market economies use a variety of non-market mechanisms such as negotiation and traditional relationships to solve allocation and coordination problems
Marx on alienation work is our most important activity as human beings. It creates our world and ourselves. Alienation is a structural condition
Durkheim on alienation alienation arises from the breakdown of the cohesive ties that bind individuals to society. A group either coheres and makes life comprehensible and viable for individuals or it fails to do so, engendering pathology
Created by: lbcontreras