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PSYCH100 Definitions

All definitions and terms from psych 100

Allele A variation of a gene that can code for a phenotype.
Acquisition In classical conditioning, the time when a CR initially becomes more like the UCR and comes more often and at a greater intensity.
Avoidance Conditioning Type of learning where one learns a behaviour in order to avoid an aversive consequence.
Adaptation The gaining and/or losing of traits based on their survival value.
Autonomic Nervous System Part of the PNS and receives and sends information to the heart and other organs.
Axon Nerve fibre that carries electrical signals AWAY from the cell body and to other neurons that it communicates with
Axon Terminal Part of the neuron that sends information across the synapse.
Afferent Neurons Neurons that carry information TO the brain.
Amines Group of neurotransmitters that includes Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Epinephrine.
Amino Acids Group of neurotransmitters that includes GABA and glutamate.
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter responsible for motor movement at the point between muscle and nerves.
Agonists Drugs that enhance or mimic the effects of neurotransmitters
Anatgonists Drugs that inhibit the effects of neurotransmitters by blocking the site that neurotransmitters bind to
Aphasia loss of the ability to speak.
Amygdala Part of the limbic system that is responsible or emotions and fear arousal
Alpha Activity Neural activity within 8-12 hertz.
Audtion Hearing; taking in sensory information via the ears
Adequate Stimulus Type of physical stimulus in which a sensory receptor is especially tuned.
Amplitude The height of a sound or light wave.
Intensity The frequency of a wave within a particular length in time
Accomodation Process where the lens changes shape in order for light to be focused when it reaches the back of the eye. (via refraction)
Akinotopsia The inability to see motion AKA motion blindness
Auditory Memory Type of memory for sounds that has JUST been perceived
Anterograde Amnesia Type of disorder caused by brain damage. It's the inability to form NEW long-term memories or memories from the time of damage.
Articulators Structures of the mouth that help make sounds (e.g.jaw tongue).
Agreeableness Personality factor that describes how kind and sympathetic a person is
Attachment Bond between cared and caregiver that spans through time and space
Apoptosis Programmed cell death. Normal process that is needed for the health of an organism
Amblyopia The loss or lack of development in central vision in one eye. It is not health related and cannot be fixed with lenses.
Autobiographical Memory Memories which make up the particular experiences that determine one's life story. Influences our self-concept.
Autism Spectrum Disorder Developmental disorder that results in limited social communication skills.
Assimilation Process where information from the new world is incorporated into existing schemata.
A-Not-B Piaget task that shows preservative error. E.g. a child keeps looking for an object where they last placed it despite seeing it placed elsewhere.
Altruism A motive to help another without conscious regard for oneself
Algorithms Step-by-step procedures
Availability heuristic The habit of estimating how often something occurs based on which examples come to mind.
Anchoring A bias that's made when a starting point is provided for judgement
Aschematic Not a having a schema for a particular situation or problem
Affective Forecasting Predicting how one would feel in an emotional event
Attributions Explanations for a persons behaviour
Attitude A positive, negative, or mixed evaluation of how a person feels about something (e.g. object, person) that they have feel on some level of intensity
Attitude Behaviour Specificity Matching Model Very specific attitudes that can predict a certain behaviour well, but not a wide range of behaviours.
Anxiety Disorder A fear of certain situations or stimuli that are not actually dangerous
Assessment Analysis of a person's life history and current symptoms before sending them off to be diagnosed for a psychological disorder by a mental health professional
Antipsychotic drug Class of drugs used to treat psychosis
Anti-depressant drug Class of drugs used to treat depression
Anti-manic drug Class of drugs used to treat mania and bipolar disorders
Anti-Anxiety drug Class of drugs used to treat anxiety or symptoms of anxiety
Aversion Therapy Pairing an unwanted behaviour with an aversive stimulus. Thereby classically conditioning a person to be disgusted and repelled by doing the behaviour
Behaviour Any observable action. It can also be recorded or measured.
Behaviour Genetics Study of how genetics affect behaviour.
Backward Conditioning When the UCS is presented BEFORE the CS
Broca's Aphasia Learning disorder where a part of the frontal lobe is damaged, disabling the production of speech.
Brain Stem Part of the hind brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. Essential for life-dependent functions: breathing, heart rate, consciousness.
Basal Ganglia Group of subcortical structures that helps in voluntary movement, and learning and remembering tasks.
Brain Plasticity The ability for a brain to change throughout time.
Blindsight The ability to behaviourally interact with objects while consciously being unaware of them.
Brain Death Irreversible condition where the brain stops functioning
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