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Stress, Coping and Resilience

STRESS The pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope.
STRESSOR An internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress
ACUTE STRESS transient state of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns
CHRONIC STRESS continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them
FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE sequence of internal activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat; body prepares for either combat and struggle or for running away to safety
THE HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS.... It controls the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This regulates activities of the body’s organs e.g. breathing becomes faster, blood vessels constrict, adrenaline gets flowing.
THE HYPOTHALAMUS ACTIVATES... It activate the pituitary gland. This which secretes two hormones that are vital to the stress reaction: thyrotropic hormone (TTH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STRESS REACTIONS Females less likely to experience fight or flight experience but rather tend to befriend.
THE GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS) AND CHRONIC STRESS The pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor
THREE STAGES OF GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS) Alarm reactions, Resistance and Exhaustion
STUDENT STRESS SCALE People who score above 300 have higher health risk. 150-300 is moderate health risk. 150 and below is 1 in 3 chance of serious health change.
TRAUMATIC EVENTS events that are negative, but also uncontrollable, unpredictable or ambiguous is particularly stressful
POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) Post traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder characterised by the persistent re-experience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, nightmares, hallucinations, or dissociative flashbacks
COPING The process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be threatening or overwhelming. It can involve cognitive and behavioural efforts.
APPRAISAL OF STRESS Cognitive appraisal is the cognitive interpretation and evaluation of a stressor and plays a central role in defining the situation
THE TWO FORMS OF APPRAISALS Primary appraisal – evaluating the situation / event as stressful. Secondary appraisal – managing the situation to cope with the stress
STAGES IN STABLE DECISION MAKING/ COGNITIVE APPRAISAL 1) appraising the challenge 2) surveying alternatives 3) weighing alternatives 4) deliberating about commitment 5) adhering despite negative feedback
ANTICIPATORY COPING efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce or tolerate the balance between perceived demands and available resources
PROBLEM-FOCUSED COPING change stressor or one’s relationship to it through direct actions and/or problem-solving activities
EMOTION-FOCUSED COPING change self through activities that make one feel better but do not change the stressor
PERCEIVED CONTROL the belief that one has the ability to make a difference in the course of the consequences of some event or experience – this can often be helpful in dealing with stressors
MINDFULLNESS It is paying attention and being aware of the present moment on purpose with a non-judgementally and non-reactionary attitude of acceptance.
Created by: tigerking31



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