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radiant energy waves that are produced, charged, and emitted from a common center in the dental radiation tube
x-ray tube produces x-rays
cathode (negative pole) electrode in the vacuum tube that serves as the electron source
filament (fine thread) tungsten coil in the cathode focusing cup that generated the electrons
anode (positive pole) the target for the electron barrage to convert the electron force into photons
focal spot target area where rays are projected to make the primary beam, or central beam
collimator (to align) a device used to regulate the beams exit from the tube into parallel rays and to avoid stray radiation
PID position inticating device
aperture (opening or port) opening in the lead collimator disk that regulates the size of the primary beam
filter aluminum disks that are placed between the collimator attachment and the exit window of the tube to absorb weak radiation
inherent filtration all filtration devices that filter weak, longer-wavelength x-rays
added filtration filtration placed outside the tube head to meet saftey standards
total filtration sum of inherent and added filtration, expressed in mm of aluminum equivlent
milliampere control (one-thousand of an ampere) also known as milliameter; an increase in millamperage increases the amount of electrons available and darkens the radiograph
kilovolt power (volt unit) controls the force that attracts the electrons to the anode; helps determine the penetrating power and the quality/energy of the radiation rays
exposure time duration of the intercal during which current wil pass through the x-ray tube
target-film distance distance of the film surface from the source of radiation (target or focal spot)
target-object distance distance between the anode target and the abject to be radiographed
film speed A (slowest) to F (fastest) speed; faster film requires less radiation exposure time for the patient
primary radiation central ray of radiation emitting from the tube head and PID
secondary radiation radiation given off from other matter that is exposed to the primary beam
scattered radiation radiation radiation deflected from its path during its passage through matter
stray radiation also called leakage, any radiation other than the useful beam produced from the tube head
remnant radiation radiation rays that reachthe film target after passing through the subject part being radiographed
sensitivity ability of x-rays to penetrate and possibly ionize
cumulative effect long-term outcome of radiation
latent period the time intercal between the exposure and the effect or its detection
mutation effect abnormal growth or development as a result of radiation causing a genetic change
acute radiation exposure radiation occurring from a massive, short-term ionizing dose, such as accidental exposure or explosion of radiation material
chronic radiation exposure accumulated radiation effects from continual or frequent small exposures absorbed over a period of time
ALARA a policy of using the lowest amount of radiation exposure possible
maximum permissable dose highest rate of exposure permissible for the occupationally exposed person
roentgen (R) the basic unit of exposure to radiation; the amount of e-radiation or gamma radiation needed to ionize 1cc of air at standard pressure and temp conditions
rad (radiation absorbed dose) the unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to 100 ergs per gram of tissue
rem (roentgen equivalent measure) the unit of ionizing radiation needed to produce the same biological effect as one roenthen of radiation
erythema dose radiation overdose that produces temporary redness of the skin
dosimeter (giving measure) radiation-monitoring device with ionizing chamber or a device to indicate exposure and measure accumulated doses of radiation
lead apron/thyrocervical collar patient apparel with lead protection for genetic cells in the torso and the thyroid glands in the cervical area
lead barriers, sheilds devices ised by operators to block out scattered radiation
phantom practice manikin containing tooth and head structures to imitate actual condition
periapical film packet used for the intraoral periapical veiw of the entire tooth or teeth in a given area along with adjacent tissues and oral structures
bitewing film packet film used to record the crown and interproximal veiws of both arches while in occlusion; used intraorally
occlusal film packet film that may be used intraorally or extraorally to expose large areas
extraoral films radiographs exposed outside the oral cavity; larger in size and loaded in a film cassette or wrapped for protection from light rays
cephalometric (head measure) also called headplates; extraoral radiographs of the head are used in orthodontic, oral surgery, and sometimes in prosthodontic dentistry
cephalostat a device used to stabilize the parient's head in a plane parallel to the film and at right angles to the central ray if the x-ray beam
panoramic radiograph a special radiograph producing the entire dentition with surrounding structures on one film
intensifying screen a layer of flourescent crystals or calcium tunstate within the cassette that gives off a bluish light when exposed to radiation
contrast variations in shades from black to white
density amount of film blackening associated with the percentage of light trasmitted through a film
detail point-to-point delineation or veiw of tiny structures in a radiograph image
definition outline sharpness and clarity of image exhibited on a radiograph
penumbra poor definition or fuzzy outlines
radiolucent (ray, shine) describes a radiograph that appears dark; or the ability of a substance to permit passage of x-rays, thereby cause the radiographic film to darken
radiopaque (ray, dark) the portion of the radiograph that appears light, or the ability of a substance to resist x-ray penetration, thereby causing a light area on the film
bisecting angle the cental x-ray beam is directly perpendicular with an imaginary bisecting line of the angle formed by the plane of the film and the long axis of the tooth
paralleling the film packet is placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth and at a right angle to the central x-ray beam
CCD (charged coupled device) a solid-state sensor that may or may not be wired to the computer work station, barrier-wrapped and inserted into a positioning device for placement and exposure in the mouth
PSP (photostimulable phosphor device) an indirect sensor storage plate that absorbs radiation to complete a latent image
indirect dental radiography digital image x-ray image already processed by the usual method, scanned by an adapter in the database
electronic image processing operator's manipulation of the digital image, consisting of contrast, brightness, image reversal, embossing, and grayness to enhance, measure, compare, or obtain information
digital subtraction radiography digital comparison of the image to a precious radiograph, subtracting all that is the same and analyzing or comparing the remainder
sagittal plane also called midsaggital plane; imaginary vertical line bisecting the face into a right half and left half; important during exposure to determine positioning of the patient
ala tragus line imaginary line fromt he ala (wing) of the nose to the tragus (skin projection anterior to acoustic meatus) center of the ear
horizontal angulation direction of the central x-ray beam in a horizontal plane
overlapping or cone cutting error observed in improper horizontal angulation
vertical angulation direction of the central x-ray beam in an up or down position
foreshortening or elongation improper vertical angulation
negative angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID upward
positive angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID downward
zero angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID parallel with the floor
Film holding instrument device used to place and retain the film during exposure
Blue anterior
yellow posterior
red bitewing
green endodontic
biteblock a device inserted between the teeth to hold the film during exposure; made of foam, wood, or plastic
bite loop/tab paper tab or a celluloid circle placed around periapical film, enabling the film to be used in a bitewing position
film safe container a lead-lined container used to hold exposed films until processing protects the film from exposure to scattered or secondary raus during exposure of films
full mouth survey (FMX) multiple exposures of the oral cavity showing crown and root area in a series of radiographic veiws. when arranged in mounts these films give a survey or veiw of the condition of the entire mouth
bitewing survey (BWX) two or four film exposures of posterior veiw to observe the crowns of maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth. anterior bitewing exposure is also possible
edentulous survey (without teeth) radiographic survey of a patient without teeth
radiograph processing is a procedure for bringing out the latent image on a film and making the exposure permanent
developing chemical process using the chemical elon to bring out contrast and another chemical, hydroquinone, to show contrast in films
accelerator solution used to swell the film emulsion during the processing
activator solution used to aid other chemicals in the processing activity
replenisher solution super-concentrated developing solution that is added to the developing tank to restore fluid levels
underdeveloping indufficient processing with weak chemicals or incorrect time or temperature that results in light, difficult-to-veiw films
overdeveloping overprocessing that results in radipgraphs that are too dark and difficult to interpret
rinsing water bath used to remoce chemical liquids from films during solution exchanges
fixing chemical process that stops the developer action and "fixes" the image, making it permanently visible
hyposulfite or hyposulfite of sodium chemical that removes exposed and unexposed silver grains from the film
drying procedure to dry films after the chemical and water baths
safelight special light or filtered light that can remain during the developing procedure
duplicating radiograph procedure utilizing a cabinet-like unit and special duplicating films to make a duplicate exposure of a processed radiograph for purposes of insureance, referral, or record
mounting also called carding, or radiographs is a procedure to arrange the processed radiographs in a cardboard, plastic, or stiff carrier to present a veiw of the oral cavity
horizontal window preset window in the mount, used to place posterior films
vertical window preset window in the mount, used for placement of anterior films
bitewing window also called interproximal window, used to place bitewing exposures
indentification dot preset pressed or raised area on the surface of the film
veiwbox a box or wall-mounted frame with fluorescent lights behind a frosted glass plate; used to veiw x-rays
elongation image of the tooth structure appearing longer than the actualy size; caused by insufficient verical angulation of the central ray
foreshortening tooth structures appearing shorter than their actual anatomical size; caused by excessive vertical angulation of the central ray
overlapping distortion of the film showing an overlap of the crowns of adjacent teeth superimposed on neighboring teeth
cone cutting improper placement of the central beam, which produces a blank area or unexposed area on the film surface caused by lack of exposure to radiation, such as when the PID is not centered properly on the film
reticulation crackling of film emulsion caused by wide temperature differences between processing solutions
fog darkening of or blemish on film that may be caused by old film, old or contaminated solutions, faulty safelight, scattered radiation, or improper storage of films
penumbra poor definition or fuzzy outline of forms, caused by movement
herringbone effect fish-bone effect on the film surface resulting from improper placement of the film
Created by: b_nybabe101