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Quiz Bowl - Science

Science-related questions to study for HS Quiz Bowl

Name the British physicist who showed an atom's positive charge was centralized in the nucleus (as opposed to what was theorized in J.J. Thomson's "Plum-Pudding" Model) by firing particles at a thin sheet of gold. Ernest Rutherford
Name the effect which Einstein's quantum theory of light attempts to explain. photoelectric effect
What is the name given to the chaotic motion of floating particles, explained by Einstein in terms of an atomic theory of matter? Brownian motion
Who was able to measure the charge on an electron (albeit with an .5% error) through his oil-drop experiment? Millikan
What is the alternative name given to electrophiles (reactivity can be explained using the HSAB theory)? Lewis Acid
Class of objects that absorb all electromagnetic radiation (supported and modeled by the Stefan-Boltzmann law) black bodies
What is the name given to hadrons comprised of two (2) quarks bound together? mesons
What is the name given to hadrons comprised of three (3) quarks bound together? baryons
Einstein's self-termed "biggest blunder"; the name of the constant he developed to keep the universe at a steady rate (as opposed to expanding) in his equations cosmological constant
type of matter which includes MACHOS and WIMPs, predicted by the Einstein-de Sitter model dark matter
triatomic pale blue gas ozone
Author of 1960 dissertation "Physical Studies of the Planets" (later found to be flawed), and the novel Contact Carl Sagan
particles which have 1/3 the charge of an electron, and have six "flavors", each has a color, and they are never found singularly quarks
John B. Watson provided empirical evidence of classical conditioning (such as Pavlov's experiments) when he conducted an experiment on what 11-month-old infant? Little Albert (or Albert B)
Name this scientific principle: Only two electrons can occupy a given orbital, and both must have opposite spins. [Pauli] Exclusion Principle
Logical maxim stating that simpler explanations of phenomena are to be preferred: expressed by Aquinas and Newton Occam's Razor
The only person to win 2 individual Nobel prizes; famous for studying molecules and biological chemistry (proteins) Linus Pauling
Give scientific principle: As protons are added to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons must also be added to the lowest energy orbital. Aufbau Principle
the electrostatic force between two ions in an ionic bond; states that the force of attraction or repulsion of two ions is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them (law) Coulomb's Law
Won Nobel Prizes for research with semiconductors and superconductivity John Bardeen
Professor at University of Chicago who developed radiocarbon dating in 1949 Libby
Forms around a black hole and is made of material being sucked towards the event horizon Accretion Disk (thank you, Stargate)
Instead of forming a black hole, a star may become this if it has insufficient mass Neutron Star (remember this because of Jimmy Neutron, he has insufficient mass because he's so small :D)
Corrected by Maxwell, who added displacement current into the equation. Name this law, named after its discoverer (who also is the namesake of the SI unit of current). Ampere's Law
Name this quantity (1.4 solar masses), which is the point at which white drawfs become supernovae. Chandrasekhar Limit
Name of an alloy of tin and copper Bronze
There is a limit to which we can know the position and momentum of a particle at a given time. [Heisenberg] Uncertainty Principle
A unit of electricity signaling speed equal to one pulse per second Baud
Characterized by an oxygen atom linking 2 hyrdocarbon groups - epoxides are cyclic compounds of these; ether
Wrote "On Floating Bodies," "Method of Mechanical Theorems", and "The Sphere and the Cylinder" Archimedes
Type of atom which is unstable, whose propogation with in unpaired election is stopped using antioxidants (found by Gomberg in 1900 at U of M) free radicals
The point at which a mixture of 2 or more elements has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. (A mixture at this point will freeze coherently at a given temperature) eutectic point
Psychology: it produces hypermnesia, in which "repressed" memories might be recalled. Coined by James Braid, popularized by Friedrich Mesmer hypnosis
Also known as Protium, discovered by Henry Cavendish Hydrogen
Known as the lambda (that's an L), temperature threshold for its occurance can be found on a graph of specific heat capacity versus temperature, property of helium-4 superfluidity
Give the names for the first and second numbers in a blood pressure reading First: Systolic Second: Diastolic
Discovered EM waves Hertz
The first spacewalks took place during this set of missions Gemini
Developed the Law of Partial Pressures Dalton
Created by: NerdvanaGirl