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LD AP Units 6 to 9

LD AP History Units # 6 to 9

TermDefinition
Albany Congress A meeting in Albany, New York, in 1754, in which the British colonies attempted to make an alliance with the Iroquois tribe in order to end their differences. The Iroquois, however, rejected the offer.
Albany Plan of Union Plan placed British N/A colonies under a more centralized govt. Rep’s from 7 British N/A colonies adopted plan on 7/10/1754. Never carried out, it was 1st important plan to conceive of the colonies as a collective whole united under one govt.
Iroquois Confederacy An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England
Fort Necessity The fort which George Washington built in the Ohio Valley to protect the English from the French.
Fort Duquesne Principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley. In 1754, the French troops destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
Treaty of Paris Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country.
Salutary Neglect an undocumented, though long-standing British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain
Pontiac's Rebellion an uprising in 1763 by American Indian tribes of the Eastern Great Lakes region
Proclamation of 1763 (1768) A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Paxton Boys A group of Scots-Irish men who wanted protection from Indian attacks. Made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. Protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Sugar Act 1764-Replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, lowered the tax on sugar & molasses. Adopted provisions that insured that the tax was strictly enforced; tried in courts & made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Currency Act 1764 - Forbade colonies to issue paper money, represented the end of salutary neglect
Stamp Act 1765- Issued to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angry & felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.
Quarrying Act 1765 - Measure required that certain colonies provide food and quarters to the British troops.
Virginia Resolves In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies.
Patrick Henry Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech.
Stamp Act Congress In 1765 a Stamp Act Congress gathered in NYC - 27 delegates from 9 colonies. Members debated & created a statement of their rights & grievance. Asked the king & Parliament to repeal the offensive legislation.
Virtual Representation Grenville's position that Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member in Parliament.
Sons of Liberty Violent group that often took matters in to its own hands. "Liberty, Property and No Stamps" Tar and feathered those who violated the non-importation agreements.
Writs of Assistance It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Repeal of Stamp Act - 1766 Parliament repeals the Stamp Act (repealing was effected by boycotts and Stamp Act Congress, which voiced anger at taxes). But, it also set up the Declaratory Act.
Declaratory Act Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Townshend Act (Duties) A tax the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint & tea, used that money to pay the tax collectors, suspended the NY leg out of suspicion & writs of assistance: gave the British power to search any place suspected of hiding smuggled goods
Letters form a Farmer in Pennsylvania Written by John Dickinson, united the colonies against the Townshead Acts
John Dickinson Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767. Opposed the Revolution. Delegate to the Continental Congress. Refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Massachusetts Circular Letter A letter written in Boston & circulated through the colonies in Feb 1768, urging colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation.
Non-Importation Agreement Colonists adopted these agreements against British goods. Colonists made their own homespun garments and this further unified the American people for the first time in a common action.
Samuel Adams Represented the soldiers who shot and killed Cripus Attucks. Samuel Adams- master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of correspondence in Massachusetts in 1772 (Sons of Liberty).
Boston Massacre 1770: British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Crispus Attucks He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
Mercy Otis Warren American anti-British writer and playwright; "Conscience of the American Revolution"; America's first female playwright; first woman to create a Jeffersonian interpretation of the Revolution
Daughters of Liberty Supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way; the American colonies would become economically independent.
Regulator Movement Uprising in North Carolina, lower class citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials who took advantage of the system.
Gaspee Incident Schooner was beached in Rhode Island, upset Americans because it was one of the last customs racketeering ships, burned down by locals, showed how militant the colonists were becoming
Committees of Correspondence Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Boston Tea Party On December 16, 1773, a band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and dumped the tea into the sea. (Boston Tea Party)
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Suffolk Resolves A designation for 2 groups, one in S.C. and N.C. that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s. In South Carolina, this was an organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government.
Fairfax Resolves George Mason - delineates the political positions/rights of the Colonies, calls for union, redress of grievances, end of slavery, and economic boycott of British goods.
Quebec Act Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
First Continental Congress September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Galloway Plan idea was to have the colonies stay with Britain and create their own Colonial Parliament, which would act together with British Parliament; due to the already well-established radical wave, the plan was narrowly outvoted by the Congress
Conciliatory Propositions parliaments proposal that the colonies, instead of being taxed directly by parliament, would tax themselves at the Parliaments demand
Second Continental Congress They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
George Washington First President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
Declaration on the Causes of Necessity of Taking up Arms was the document that explained the Texans' reason of fighting
Olive Branch Petition On July 8, 1775, colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreed to be loyal to British govt if it addressed their grievances. Rejected by Parliament. Dec 1775 passed American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence (1776) Formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress. The declaration allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide.
Battle of Saratoga Turning point in the war. Gen. Horatio Gates (American) defeated Gen. Burgoyne (British). Convinced the French to help the Americans. (1778)
Franco-American Alliance Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies. France wanted to piss of Britain basically. Made by Ben Franklin
Loyalists (Tories) American colonists who were loyal to Britain and the king
Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered on October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
Articles of Confederation Document of 1781, first written government of the US, that was put out of business by the Constitution
Newburgh Conspiracy A plan by Continental Army officers to challenge the authority of the Confederation Congress, arising from their frustration with Congress's long-standing inability to meet its financial obligations to the military.
Barbary States Were a collection of North African states, many of which practiced state-supported piracy in order to exact tribute from weaker Atlantic powers.
Land Ordinance of 1784 Called for the land in the recently created United States of America west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River to be divided into separate states.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
Mt. Vernon (Alexandria) Conference Delegaes of Virginia and Maryland met to consider means of improving the navigability of the Potomac River. The commissioners asked all states to meet at Annapolis where problems of interstate commerce could be discussed.
Annapolis Conference A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Shay's Rebellion Rebellion in W Massachusetts against the annexation of farms due to foreclosure or tax wrongdoings led by a Revolution veteran & made up mainly of other veterans who sought cheap paper money & lighter taxes in addition to the right to keep their land
Northwest Ordinance Created for the Northwest Territory , legislation that provided for the orderly transformation of western territories into states.
Virginia Plan Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
New Jersey Plan Proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had 1 vote. Created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, & smaller states, which didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Great Compromise (Conn. Plan) Plan proposed that suggested combining the Virginia and New Jersey plans. Would be two houses, one house having representation based off of population, the other having representation based off of the state. Also included the three branches of government.
Commerce Compromise South agreed to federal control over foreign and interstate trade.
The importation of slaves would be permitted for 20 years, until 1808.
The federal govt was given the authority to collect import taxes, but there would be no duties on exports.
Slave Trade Compromise restricted the number of slaves counted toward representation and taxation to 3/5 the total number of slaves and prohibited congress from outlawing slavery before 1808.
Three-Fifths Compromise Agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress
Electoral College Process the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
James Madison "The father of the Constitution" and author of Federalist No. 10
Alexander Hamilton 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Federalists Wealthy conservatives devoted to republicanism who engineered a nonviolent political transformation
Anti-Federalists Group that failed to block the central government they feared but did force the promise of a bill of rights
Federalists Papers Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
Federalism A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Checks and Balances A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Powers A system that separated the powers of government into three separate braches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Bill of Rights Drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
French and Indian War North American war (1754-63) between France and Great Britain that is also referred to as the Seven Years War.
Actual Representation a representative is elected by his constituents.
Lexington and Concord first battles of the revolution, militias were massacred at Lexington but won at Concord
Constitutional Convention The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Created by: desilva13