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PerfectUnion/Constit

More Perfect Union/The Constitution

TermDefinition
states’ rights rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government
Congress common name for legislative branch of government/made up of the Senate and House of Reps.
House of Representatives Part of Congress/states represented according to their population
Senate Part of Congress/ each state represented by two senators
Federalism divide power between federal government and states/10th Amendment in B.O.R. is Federalism because it protects states’ rights.
Republicanism Citizens elect representatives to carry out citizens’ desires
Popular Sovereignty government's right to rule comes from the people.
Limited Government government has only the powers that the Constitution gives it.
Articles of Confederation 1777/ 1st gov’t framework “plan”/very weak/gave states too much power/each state had 1 rep./no federal branches/states have power to tax/consent of 9 states to pass a law
Constitutional Convention 1787/ met in Philadelphia, PA/George Washington presiding officer/ met to address the problems with Articles of Confederation that was replaced by modern U.S. Constitution
Magna Carta 1215/ Limited the power of the King (Constitution limits the power of the government)/ trial by jury
U.S. Constitution “We the People” first words
Preamble Expresses the reasons the Constitution was written
English Bill of Rights Listed individual rights/model for the Bill of Rights in the Constitution
Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to the Constitution
Fifteenth Amendment African-American men right to vote/ election of 1872 will be the first time vote
Nineteenth Amendment Women the right to vote
Virginia Plan “large state” plan that proposed representation based on population size/ two-house legislature/chief executive/ court systems
New Jersey Plan “small state” plan that proposed equal representation among all states.
Great Compromise Roger Sherman/Constitution resulted in two-house legislature (Bicameral) with House of Reps.based on population and Senate maintaining equal representation/ most states accepted this/ how slaves should be counted regarding population and taxation
Three-Fifths Compromise Slave population would be counted when setting direct taxes on the states/count each enslaved person as a fraction of a free person for both taxation and representation.
Federalists Argued for a stronger national government/Articles of Confederation too weak and would cause U.S. to fail/ Federalists for Constitution.
Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787/Second Continental Congress/procedure for turning territories into states/helped to stop slavery
Alexander Hamilton A leader of Federalists/wrote Federalist Paper #9 in 1787/ first Treasurer of U.S., creator of Bank of the U.S./killed in a duel by Vice Pres. Aaron Burr.
Anti-Federalists Argued to protect states' rights/ against U.S. Constitution/continued to believe we fought Revolutionary War to get away from the tyranny of a strong central government (Britain) / desired individual liberties/wanted Bill of Rights
Federalist Papers Published anonymously during Constitutional Era/ writings showed support to ratify (make official) U.S. Constitution and to focus on need for strong federal government with restricted powers.
Separation of Powers The Constitution divides the government into three branches/ idea to divide the trust between bodies of men who might watch and check each other
Checks and Balances Baron de Montesquieu/each branch of government has the power to check or limit the actions of the other two
Legislative Branch Makes laws (Congress)
Executive Branch Carries out/ applies laws
Judicial Branch Explains and interprets the laws/ Judicial review
Shays’ Rebellion Protestors led by merchant and farmer/upset they couldn’t pay their debts and land taken by state/showed weakness of Articles of Confederation
First Amendment Constitution R.A.P.P.S Right to religion, assembly, petition, press, speech
Second Amendment Right to bear arms
Third Amendment No housing of soldiers
Fourth Amendment Search and seizure/ must have a warrant
Fifth Amendment Cannot be charged for the same crime twice, due process = fair and equal treatment under the law
Sixth Amendment Right to a fair and speedy trial/ right to a lawyer
Seventh Amendment Right to a trial in civil cases
Eighth Amendment No cruel or unusual punishment
Ninth Amendment Rights described in the Constitution are not the only ones allowed/ people still have rights that are not listed.
Tenth Amendment Powers not specifically given to the United States government in the Constitution, may go to either the states or to the people/ conflicting interpretations of this amendment will lead to Nullification Crisis
Created by: pdelam4