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8th STAAR Review 1-2

8th STAAR Review Eras 1-2

QuestionAnswer
When was Jamestown founded? 1607 by the Virginia Company
When was the Mayflower Compact signed? in 1620, to promise to form a "civil body politic"
When did Thomas Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence? 1776
When was the Nullification Crisis? 1832
When did Thomas Jefferson purchase the Louisiana Territory from France that doubled the size of the U.S.? 1803
When was the Civil War? 1861-1865
Why did early Europeans explore and colonize North America? God, Gold, Glory
What was the role of "virtue" in founding new English colonies? Early colonies were founded on the idea of virtue, such as Massachusetts Bay
Religious groups moved to the colonies in order to find what? religious freedom
What English document of 1215 influenced the early representative government of the US? Magna Carta
What English document of 1689 guaranteed English citizens right to trial by jury and taxation with consent? English Bill of Rights
What is the English lawmaking body? Parliament
Who was banished from Puritan Massachusetts for his different religious beliefs and founded a settlement in Rhode Island based on religious freedom and toleration? Roger Williams
Who founded Pennsylvania as a safehaven for Quakers, but allowed other religions to settle as well? William Penn
What religious group wanted to rid the Anglican Church of Catholic practices, and moved to the New World to create a "City upon the Hill?" The were not tolerant of other religions. Puritans
Why did each colony create its own local representative government? England was too far away for daily governing, salutary neglect and traditions of the English
What was the first Constitution in the colonies, inspired by Thomas Hooker and based on a representative government? Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
What was an early representative body in the colonies? Virginia House of Burgesses
What event put Britain in debt, causing taxes to be raised on the colonies? French and Indian War
What economic theory is based on the mother country controlling trade of its colonies to gain more wealth and power? colonies were not allowed to industrialize or trade with any country except the Mother Country mercantilism
What is the three way trade across the Atlantic where the colonies provided raw materials to England at a low prices, and were forced to buy manufactured goods at a high price? Triangular Trade (colonies were a source of raw materials)
What religious movement contributed to the growth of representative government by encouraging freedom of religion? The Great Awakening
What colonial region had thin, rocky soil that was not suitable for large-scale farming, but instead had an economy based on trade, shipbuilding, lumber and fishing? New England
What colonial region had fertile soil, a long growing season and navigable rivers, therefore had an economy based on plantations and cash crops? The Southern colonies
What characteristic determined the economic activities of the colonial regions? the physical geography
What act placed a tax on printed materials in the colonies that led to the formation of the Committees of Correspondence and the Sons of Liberty? The Stamp Act; later repealed due to the colonial boycott
What laws reduced colonial manufacturing and took away freedom of trade in order for England to profit MORE? Navigation Acts
What era is characterized by European rivals exploring and creating settlements in North America? Colonization
Why did the French colonize North America? to profit from the fur trade
What generally characterizes motives for European exploration and colonization of North America? God (spread Christianity), Gold (find resources, trade), Glory (personal ambition, rivalries)
Why was Virginia settled? the Virginia Company was hoping to find gold
What colony was established for Catholics to escape persecution, but allowed other religions? Maryland
What colony was established for Quakers by William Penn, but also allowed other religions and wanted equality for all? Pennsylvania
What colony was founded on the idea of religious freedom by people banished from Massachusetts, such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson? Rhode Island
What war was fought between France and England in the colonies over the Ohio River Valley? England won territory to the Mississippi River, but also gained DEBT French and Indian War +ended policy of Salutary neglect
what right is especially important in a democratic society where people vote for leaders? freedom of press and speech, so people can have information about candidates
What did colonists lack, that was the main reason for opposing British taxation? representation in Parliament (no one to fight in Parliament for what the colonists needed)
What law did Britain pass that forbid colonists to move west of the Appalachian Mountains, in an effort to decrease costs of protecting colonists from Native attacks? The Proclamation Act of 1763
Who wrote letters to her husband during the meetings of the Continental Congress, revealing a commitment to women and African American rights, and Independence? Abigail Adams
Who was the future 2nd president of the U.S. and led the debate for independence in the Continental Congress? He was also on the committee that drafted the Dec of Ind. John Adams
What Bostonian patriot formed the Sons of Liberty and the Committees of Correspondence? Samuel Adams
What inventor and journalist first argued for the need of unifying with a central government in Albany Plan of Union in the French and Indian War, helped write the Declaration of Independence and convinced France to help the colonies in the revolution? Benjamin Franklin
Who was the first killed the American Revolution, being shot during the Boston Massacre? Crispus Attucks
Who was the king of England during the American Revolution? George III
Who was the great speaker who advanced the patriot cause with his speech "Give me liberty, or give me death!" Patrick Henry
Who was appointed commander of the new continental army? George Washington
What patriot wrote the pamphlet Common Sense, supporting independence from Britain? Thomas Paine
What was the first battle of the American Revolution? Lexington and Concord
What laws punished Boston for the Tea Party by shutting down Boston Harbor to trade and banning representative meetings? Intolerable Acts
When was the Declaration of Independence issued? July 4, 1776
What religious revival argued for religious freedom and toleration? Great Awakening
Complaints against George III listed in the Declaration of Independence such as unfair taxation, no fair trials, dissolving legislatures...are known as? grievances
What are unalienable rights? those that the government cannot take away: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
What French thinker argued for separation of government power into 3 branches with a system of checks and balances to LIMIT the power of the government? Charles de Montesquieu
Who influenced the Declaration of Independence with his social contract theory that states people are born with natural rights and the purpose of government to protect those rights? John Locke
What is an example of civil disobedience? (breaking a law you believe is unjust) Boston Tea Party
What led to the development of the plantation system and slavery in the south? the south's physical geography allowed for the growing of cash crops which were labor intensive; this led to the importation of slaves
first American naval hero? John Paul Jones
African American who spied on the British for the colonists, posing as an escaped slave? James Armistead
first African American elected to office; fought at Saratoga Wentworth Cheswell
French aristocrat who aided the Colonists Marquis de Lafayette
What battle was a turning point, putting the Americans on the offensive? Saratoga
What was the final battle of the American revolution where the British General Cornwallis surrendered? Yorktown
What treaty ended the American Revolution, where Britain recognized U.S. independence and ceded land in the West to the Mississippi River? Treaty of Paris, 1783
What loose alliance of states governed the U.S. during the revolution, but lacked a strong central government? Articles of Confederation
What law set up the orderly expansion of the US when it gained new territory by creating a procedure to admit new states? Northwest Ordinance
Compromise during the Constitutional Convention that created our two house Congress with the Senate and House of Representatives The Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise
Compromise during the Constitutional Convention that solved the dispute of how the enslaved population would count when determining how many members states got to elect to the House of Representatives. Three-Fifths Compromise
The Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan were both suggestions on how to organize what branch of government in the Constitution in 1878? The Congress (proportional or equal representation?)
Who is known as the Father of the Constitution, author of the Virginia Plan and 4th president of the US? James Madison
As set in the Great Compromise, how many Senators does each state have? 2- equal representation which benefits small states
As set in the Great Compromise, how many representatives does each state get in the House depends on the population of the state- proportional to the population to benefit large states
Created by: lauren.davis