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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian US HIST "Industrializatn." Test Flashcards 2018

What were "boomtowns"? This was the name given to towns that sprang up overnight during the Gold Rush. (Pg. 158)
What does the term "vigilance committees" relate to? This term relates to self - appointed volunteers who would track down and punish wrongdoers in "boomtowns". (Pg. 159)
How does "hydraulic mining" work? This process works by blasting high pressure water against hills or mountainsides to wash away dirt, gravel, and rock and expose the minerals beneath. (Pg. 161)
What was the main problem with "hydraulic mining"? The main problem with this type of mining was that it caused a large amount of silt to flow into rivers and streams, polluting them. (Pg. 161)
What does the term "Great Plains" refer to? This term refers to "a vast area of grassland that the federal government owned. It was used by cowboys to conduct cattle drives. (Pg. 162)
What industry took over as the main source of revenue from livestock once the cattle industry died out in the 1880's? The sheep farming industry took this industry's place. (Pg. 163)
What does the term "haciendas" refer to? This term refers to "huge ranches that covered thousands of acres in California as part of the "Spanish Mission System". (Pg. 164)
What does the term "barrios" refer to? This is the term for Hispanic neighborhoods in places like El Paso, TX.; Albuquerque, NM.; and Los Angeles, CA. (Pg. 165)
What is a "homestead" ? This term refers to "a tract of public land available for settlement". (Pg. 167)
Explain how the technique of "dry farming" works. In this technique, seeds are planted deep enough into the ground where there was enough moisture for them to grow. (Pg. 168)
What does the term "sod busters" refer to? This term refers to the farmers who plowed the Plains. (Pg. 169)
Where did the "Wheat Belt" begin and end? This area started at the eastern edge of the Great Plains and included much of the Dakotas and the Plains of Nebraska and Kansas. (Pg. 169)
What were "bonanza farms"? These were very large farms that covered several hundred acres (some were as large as 50,000 acres!) that yielded huge profits. (Pg. 169)
In the paper that we read - "The Significance of the Frontier in American History 1893" - what are the two (2) major things that the author says made the frontier “more American” as it further west? 1. The increase of steam navigation on western waters; 2. The western extension of the cotton culture, which added 5 states to the Union. (Frederick Jackson Turner assignment)
What does Frederick Jackson Turner say “explains American development up until this time” (i.e. the time when he wrote his thesis paper)? "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development." (Frederick Jackson Turner assignment)
What does MacLeod say about the Hunkpapa's status as far as Canadian citizenship is concerned? He tells Sitting Bull and his tribe that, because the were originally residents of the U.S.A. who had crossed the border into Canada without permission, they were considered American Indians, not Canadian Indians.
What were conditions like for the Hunkpapas while they were living in Canada? The Canadian government did not offer them help of any kind during the entire 4 years they were there. They suffered due to lack of food and shelter during Canada's extremely cold winters.
What was the Dawes Act of 1887? This Act granted each head of household 160 acres of reservation land for farming. Single adults received 80 acre, and 40 acres were allotted for children. (Pg. 175)
What was the Indian Peace Commission? This group was formed by Congress in 1867. They proposed creating 2 large reservations on the Plains: one for the Sioux and another for Native Americans of the southern Plains. (Pg. 173)
What does the term "annuities" refer to? This term refers to "annual payments from the government". (Pg. 170)
What did Frederick Jackson Turner believe that the frontier had provided for American colonists? He believed that this had provided a "safety valve of social discontent". (Pg. 169)
What does the term "assimilate" mean/ refer to? This term means "to be absorbed". It relates to how the U.S. government treated Native American culture in the late 1800's. (Pg. 175)
What does the term "annuities" mean/ refer to? This term refers to annual payments from the government.
List three (3) ways that the Plains Indians were similar. 1.) They were nomadic; 2.) They believed in spiritual power in the natural world; 3.) They lived in extended family groups.
How did Native Americans respond to losing land due to "white settlement" of the Great Plains? Some attacked wagon trains and ranches, going to war against nearby settlers and troops.
According to our textbook, what did historian Frederick Jackson Turner believe about the American frontier? "He believed that it was a place where Americans could always make a fresh start." (Pg. 169)
How did the Homestead Act of 1862 encourage settlement of the Plains? People could file for 160 acres of public land & would receive the title after living and making improvements on the land for five years.
What challenges did Plains farmers face? 1.) Difficult climate: 2.) Hot summers & harsh cold winters; 3.) Lack of wood for homes; 4.) They had to dig deep wells for water; 5.) Grasshoppers; 6.) Prairie fires. (Pgs. 167)
What caused the decline of the cattle business in the late 1800's? An oversupply of cattle drove down prices, and the winter of 1886 to 1887 killed a large number of cattle. (Pg. 163)
What technological innovation led to the end of "long drives"? The invention of barbed wire ended this. (Pg. 163)
What does the term "open range" mean/ refer to? This term relates to "a vast area of grassland that the federal government owned". Ranchers could graze their herds here free of charge. (Pg. 162)
Created by: sticklerpjpII