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First Presidents

Mr. D's Review of Presidents G. Washington and J. Adams

What is the "electoral college"? A group of state delegates that elects the President. The Constitution has established this system to elect the President.
What is a "precedent"? An example set for others that follow
What is the "cabinet"? The President's group of advisors. Each cabinet member runs an executive department. For instance, the Secretary of State runs the State Department.
What does the term "national debt" mean? It is the money that a country or government owes.
What is a "speculator"? A person making a risky investment hoping to make big profits in the future from the investment.
What is a "political party"? A group that helps elect people to office and wants to shape government policy
What is a "bond"? A certificate of debt owed to the person holding it plus interest
What were two precedents set by George Washington for future presidents? Having a cabinet, serving for only two terms as President, and giving a Farewell Address
Who was George Washington's first Secretary of State? Thomas Jefferson
Who was George Washington's first Secretary of the Treasury? Alexander Hamilton
Who was George Washington's first Secretary of War? Henry Knox
Who was the first Vice President of the United States? John Adams
Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supremem Court? John Jay
What law did Congress pass to organize the federal court system in 1789? The Judiciary Act of 1789
What law did Congress pass to organize the federal court system in 1789? The Judiciary Act of 1789
What law did Congress pass to organize the federal court system in 1789? The Judiciary Act of 1789
What were the two main parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789? It set the number of judges on the Supreme Court (six originally, now nine!)and it established the lower courts (District Courts and Courts of Appeals)
How did Hamilton plan to repay the government debt? He planned to take back the old bonds and issue new bonds with a guarantee of payment. He also wanted to pay-off all of the remaining state debts (mostly northern states)
Why did the southern states object to Hamilton's debt plan? Under Hamilton's plan, the federal government would pay off any remaining state debts. The southern states had paid off their debts and would have to contribute to pay off northern state debts.
What member of Congress led the opposition to Hamilton's debt plan? James Madison from Virginia
What compromise was made to get southern support for Hamilton's debt plan? The nation's capital would be moved from New York City to the District of Columbia which was further south. Philadelphia would be the temporary capital until the new capital city was built.
What were Hamilton's plans for strengthening the economy? 1. Charter a Bank of the United States to pay bills and issue loans to businesses; 2. Have Congress pass a protective tariff to protect American industry; 3. Raise government revenue through tariff and alcohol tax to pay debts
What was the cause of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794? Farmers in western Pennsylvania felt the tax on alcohol was unfair and rebelled.
What were the results of the Whiskey Rebellion? Washington and Hamilton called up a militia force of 13,000 troops to end the rebellion and enforce the law. The leaders were tried for treason, found guilty,and pardoned by Washington.
When did the French Revolution start? July 14, 1789
Where did the French Revolution begin? At a Paris prison called the Bastille. The people attacked the prison and took it over.
Why did some Americans support the French Revolution? The French were our allies in our Revolution. Also, the French people were fighting for their rights and equality.
Why were some Americans against the French Revolution? Some Americans became upset with the bloodshed and numerous executions of the French Revolution, especially during the "Reign of Terror".
Why did George Washington issue the "Neutrality Proclamation" in 1793? The French Revolution triggered a war in Europe. Washington wanted to avoid this "European" war. We were in debt and militarily unprepared for war.
What was the cause of problems on the frontier during Washington's presidency? Settlers were breaking treaties with the Indians and moving on to Indian lands.
What were the results of the frontier wars? After winning early victories, the Indians were defeated by General Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. In 1795, the Treaty of Greenville ended the fighting.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Greenville? The Indians gave up most of the land that now makes up southern Ohio. In return, they received $20,000 and the promise of future payments if they remained peaceful.
What nation's were involved in the signing of Jay's Treaty in 1794? Great Britain and the United States
What was the cause of the trouble between the U.S. and G.B.? The British violated our neutrality by capturing more than 250 American ships trading in the French West Indies. Americans wanted war! Washington knew we were too weak to fight a war. He sent John Jay to negotiate peace.
What were the terms of Jay's Treaty in 1794? 1. G.B. agreed to pay damages for the American ships; 2. G.B. agreed to abandon their forts on our frontier; U.S. promised to pay debts owed to Britain from before the war
Why were many Americans unhappy with Jay's Treaty? Britain did not agree to stop attacking/seizing our ships that were trading with France
Who was the leader of the Federalist Party? Alexander Hamilton
Who were the leaders of the Democrat-Republican Party? Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Which party favored a strong central government? Federalist
Which party favored a loose interprestation of the Constitution? Federalist
Which party favored stronger state governments? Democrat-Republican
Which party favored Britain in the war in Europe? Federalist
Which party was against the Bank of the United States being chartered? Democrat-Republican- believed it was unconstitutional
Which party favored France in the war in Europe? Democrat-Republican
Which party favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution? Democrat-Republican
Which party favored the chartering of the Bank of the United States? Federalist
Which party favored a protective tariff? Federalist
Which party opposed a protective tariff? Democrat-Republican
Who were the Federalist candidates for President and Vice President in 1796? John Adams for President and Thomas Pinckney for Vice President
Who were the Democrat-Republican candidates for President and Vice President in 1796? Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President
Who won the Presidential election of 1796? Federalist candidate John Adams won the most electoral college votes and became the second president of the U.S.
Who became the Vice President in election of 1796? At the time,the Constitution stated that the second place vote recipient, Democrat-Republican Thomas Jefferson, would become the Vice President
When did the XYX Affair occur and who was the President? It occured in 1798 while John Adams was president
What two countries were involved in the XYZ Affair? The United States and France. France was upset with the U.S. after we signed Jay's Treaty with Britain and seized more than 300 of our merchant ships between 1796-1798. President Adams sent diplomats to France to negotiate peace and avoid war.
What was the cause of the XYZ Affair? Three French secret agents, X, Y, and Z, were sent to demand $250,000 for French foreign minister, Talleyrand, and a $12 million loan for France before Talleyrand would begin negotiation talks. The Americans were outraged and refused.
What were the results of the XYZ Affair? 1. Adams refused to ask for a declaration of war; Adams asked for money to build-up our navy which fought a two-year undeclared war at sea with France; the Federalist Party split as many Federalist wanted war, France agreed to stop the attacks in 1800
What was the Alien Act (1798)? The Federalists in Congress passed this law raising the citizenship requirement from 5 to 14 years and allowed the government to expel dangerous foreigners. Many foreigners, after becoming citizens, were Democrat-Republicans
What was the Sedition Act (1798)? The Federalists in Congress passed this law which made it a crime, punishable by a fine or jail, to criticize the government or elected officials. Since the Federalists were in power, this was aimed to help keep them in power.
What does "nullify" mean? to cancel
What were the Kentucky (1798) and Virginia (1799) Resolutions? State laws claiming that each state "has an equal right to judge for itself" whether a law is unconstitutional. If so, it has the right to nullify that law within its borders
What was the important issue raised by the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions? states' rights- the idea that individual states have the right to limit the power of the federal government
Created by: rdewald