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Period 3 Vocabulary

APUSH Period 3 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Albany Plan of Union During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
French and Indian War Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won.
Proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sugar Act of 1764 Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the lowered the tax on sugar and molasses but for the first time insured that the tax was strictly enforced; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non–British Caribbean colonies.
Quartering Act of 1765 Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Stamp Act of 1765 Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies had to be written on special, stamped British paper. Caused riots, and colonists burned stamped paper.
Sons of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept.
Townshend Acts of 1767 Taxed quasi–luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage.
Boston Massacre Group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti–British sentiment.
Tea Act of 1773 The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non–British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
Intolerable Acts (1774) Passed in response to the Boston Tea Party, and included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the MA Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly; and the Quartering Act.
First Continental Congress (1774) Met in Philadelphia AND rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, and resolved to prepare militias.
Lexington and Concord The British marched on Lexington & Concord, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The British were attacked by the colonial militia. Start of the Revolutionary War.
George Grenville Prime Minister who passed the Sugar & Stamp Acts to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies.
Boston Tea Party British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard.
Thomas Paine's 'Common Sense' Written to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution
Declaration of Independence (1776) The Declaration of Independence dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
Articles of Confederation Gave most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money.
Treaty of Paris (1783) Ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Republican Motherhood An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
Northwest Land Ordinance of 1785 Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. Provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
Shays' Rebellion (1786) Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from foreclosures. The federal government was too weak to help remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
Tyranny a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
John Locke's 'Social Contract' He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
Thomas Jefferson He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. Leader of Anti-Federalist movement
Sovereignty government free from external control
Tories American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
George Washington Established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. General in Revolutionary War and 1st President.
Tariffs Tax on goods imported into a country; generally passed as a protective measure of domestic industry.
Alexander Hamilton A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
Hamilton's Financial Plan Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy. 1.Creation of the National Bank. 2. increased tariffs and an excise tax on whiskey. 3. federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
Virginia Plan Proposed that each state’s representation in Congress on state population
Connecticut (Great) Compromise Larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
New Jersey Plan Proposed that every state had the same number of representatives in Congress.
Three-Fifths Compromise Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.
Separation of powers A system that separated the powers of government into three separate branches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Checks and balances A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
Federalists Mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Supported ratification of the Constitution because they believed a strong, central government was necessary.
Anti-Federalists Opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights.
'The Federalist Papers' Collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Bank of the United States Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
Whiskey Rebellion(1794) Farmers in PA rebelled against Hamilton's tax on whiskey.The army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem.
Neutrality Act (1794) Issued by Washington that proclaimed that The United States was a neutral state when war erupted again between France and England This illustrated the truism that self-interest is the glue of alliances.
Washington's Farewell Address He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) Alien Act: empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; Sedition Act,: made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Judiciary Act of 1789 Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Articles of Confederation Weakness & Success Weakness = gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united. Success = it settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution."
Created by: rkrauseemhs