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GOV Topic 6 Vocab

GOV Topic 6 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Bureaucracy A large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization
Bureaucrat A person who works for a bureaucratic organization
Administration The officials in the executive branch of a government and their policies and principles
Executive Office of the President An organization of several agencies staffed by the president's closed advisors
Federal Budget A detailed financial document containing estimates of federal income and spending during the coming fiscal year
Executive Departments Often called "the Cabinet" departments; they are the traditional units of federal administration
Secretary An official in charge of a department of government
Attorney General The head of the department of Justice
Civilian Nonmilitary
Independent Agencies Additional agencies created by congress located outside the cabinet departments
Independent Executive Agencies Agencies headed by a single administrator with regional subunits, but lacking Cabinet status
Civil service Refers to governmental service in which individuals are employed (hired) on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations
Patronage The practice of giving jobs to supporters and friends
Spoils System The practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends
Draft Conscription, or compulsory military service
Independent Regulatory Commissions Independent agencies created by congress, designed to regulate important aspects of the nation's economy, largely beyond the reach of presidential control
Government Corporations Corporations within the executive branch subject to the president's direction and control, set up by congress to carry out certain business-like activities
Isolationism A purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world
Foreign Policy A group of policies made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries
Cold War A period of more than 40 years during which relations between the superpowers were at least tense, and often hostile. A time of threats and military build up
Collective Security The keeping of international peace and order
Containment A policy based in the belief that if communism could be kept within its existing boundaries, it could collapse under the weight of its internal weaknesses
Detente A relaxation of tensions
Isthmus of Panama When this country revolted and became independent of Colombia, the U.S. gained the right to build a canal here by the United States which dramatically shortened the time required to sail between the East and West making global shipping much cheaper
Pearl Harbor America's historic commitment to isolationism was finally ended by WWII when the Japanese attached the American naval base herein Hawaii on December 7, 1941
Right of Legation The right to send and receive diplomatic representatives
Ambassador An official representative of the United States appointed by the president to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy
Diplomatic Immunity When an ambassador is not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited
Passport A legal document issued by a state that identifies a person as a citizen of the state and permits travel to and from that state
Visa A permit to enter another country, obtained from the country one wishes to enter
Foreign Aid Economic and military aid to other countries
Regional Security Alliances Treaties in which the United States and other countries involved have agreed to take collective action to meet aggression in a particular part of the world
NATO An alliance formed to protect the freedom and security of its members through political and military action
United Nations A league of nations, with 192 members, that accepts the obligations of the charter, a treaty drafted in 1945
Security Council a 15-member panel that bears the UN's major responsibility for keeping international peace
Madeleine Albright The nation's first woman to hold the secretary of state post in 1997
Ayatollah Khomeini He made the most serious breach in modern time against diplomatic immunity in Iran in late 1979 when his militant followers seized the American embassy in Tehran. 66 Americans were taken hostage and 52 were held for 444 days until finally released
Slobodan Milosevic NATO forces, drawn mostly from the United States, Great Britain, and Canada put an end to the horrific campaigns of "ethnic cleansing,' directed by this Serbian president
Espionage Spying
Terrorism The use of violence to intimidate a government or society
Created by: cwarsing