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Reveiw of Biochemistry I part 1

Specific heat A measure of the energy required to effext a temperature change per gram.
Specific heat of water 4.18 J/gC
Heat of Vaporization The energy required to effect a change of state from liquid to vapor.
Heat of Vaporization of water 2280 J/g or 41 kJ/mol
Convection A warm body surrounded by air warms the air around it. This air becomes less dense, and moves away, and cooler air moves in to repeat process.
Conduction A warm body close to a cold body, heat flows from hot to cold.
Endothermic reaction + delta H
Exothermic reaction - delta H
Basic solution pH greater than 7
Acidic solution pH less than 7
pH -log of hydrogen ion concentration
Ion - Dipole A purely ionic molecule interacts with other dipole molecules (i.e.: Na+ and water). The positive charge of the ion is attracted to the negative end of the dipole.
Dipole - Dipole An interaction between two polar molecules (i.e.: water and water) where the positive end of one dipole is attracted to the negative end of the other dipole.
Hydrogen Bonding An electrostatic attraction between molecules of H bound to an O, F, or N and another O, F, or N. Causes anomalous behavior of water! 15 – 20 kJ/mol
Dipole - Induced Dipole (dispersion) A polar molecule creates a dipole (charge separation) in an adjacent non-polar molecule. The strength increases as molar mass increases.
Induced Dipole - Induced Dipole Momentary attraction and repulsion between electrons and nuclei creates induced dipoles and leads to a net stabilization due to attractive forces.
London Forces A weak dispersion force due to the circulation of electrons between 2 non-polar covalent molecules.
Amphipathic Agents that have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end.
Micelles Cluster of amphipathic agents, typically in a polar solvent
Tyndall Effect The effect of particles suspended in liquid, scattering light. Micelles do this.
Mixed Micelle The hydrophobic agent gets locked up in the hydrophilic portion of the micelle.
What is the function of a mixed micelle? Allows for the polar solvent to accommodate hydrophobic solutes.
Electrolyte A solute which, when dissolved in water produces a solution that conducts electricity.
Strong electrolyte Will completely dissociate in water
Weak electrolyte Doesn't completely dissociate in water.
Non-electrolytes Do not dissociate in water.
Solubility The amount of a substance dissolved in moles/L (Ksp). You must know the [products] at equilibrium.
Buffer systems A chemical system that is designed to resist changes in pH.
Buffer Capacity the amount of added acid or base that a buffer can control.
Henderson-Hasselbach ph =pKa + log[CB]/[Acid]
What is an example of an intracellular buffer system? Inorganic Phophate
What is an example of an extracellular buffer system? Sodium Bicarbonate
When temperature increases, what happens to the solubility of a gas? It Decreases.
When pressure increases, what happens to the solubility of a gas? It increases.
Primary Alkali deficit Deficiency of a proton acceptor (base). Results in acidosis.
What is the respiratory compensation of primary alkali deficit? Hyperventilation. Decreases pressure and restores pH.
What is the renal compensation of primary alkali deficit? Excretion of NH4+
Primary Alkali Excess Excess of a proton acceptor (base). Become alkalotic.
What is the respiratory compensation for primary alkali excess? Hypoventilation, increases pressure and restores pH.
What is the renal compensation for primar alkali excess? Excretion of HCO3-
Primary Carbon Dioxide Excess Excess of a proton donor (acid). Results in acidosis.
Amino Acids Contain a carboxylate group, an amine group and an R-grou
How can amino acids be categorized based on their R-groups? Hydrophobic, polar (charged or uncharged), aromatic.
Zwitterion A molecule with two charges but no net charge.
Isoelectric Form Occurs at the isoelectric pH, where zwitterions form. Can be used to isolate proteins.
Know Respiration Diagrams, and protein structures are left out because I have them in Cell Bio Cards! Good Luck!
Created by: eane220