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medical term

respiratory

TermDefinition
anoxia The absence of oxygen from the body/es gases, blood, or tissues
anthracosis The form pneumoconiosos caused by coal dust in the lungs
antitussive Medication administered to prevent, or relieve coughing.
asphyxia The condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function
asphyxiation An interruption of breathing that results in the loss of consciousness or death.
atelectasis Condition in which the lung fails to expand because air cannot pass beyond the bronchioles that are blocked by secretions
bronchiectasis Chronic enlargement of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from an earlier lung infection that was not cured
bronchodilator Medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchorrhea Excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
Cheyne-Stokes respiration Pattern of alternating periods of rapid breathing, slow breathin, and the absence of breathing
cystic fibrosis Genetic disorder in which the lungs are clogged with large amounts of abnormally thick mucus
diphtheria Acuste infectious disease of the trroat and upper respiratory tract caused by the presence of diphtheria bacteria
emphysema Progressive loss of lung function due to a decrease in the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and then the progressive destruction of their walls
empyema accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
endotracheal intubation The passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the treachea to establish or maintain an open airway.
hemoptysis Spitting of blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
hemothorax Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity. 
hypercapnia The abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea Abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
hypopnea Shallow or slow respiration. 
hypoxemia A condition of having below normal oxygen level in the blood.
hypoxia The condition of having below normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells
laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx.
laryngoplegia Paralysis of the larynx.
mediastinum The cavity located between the lungs. 
pertussis Contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by a spasm like cough
pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx; also known as a sore throat
pneumoconiosis An abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact
pneumothorax Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural spacecausing the lung to collapse
upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea
lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial trees and lungs
thoracic cavity protects the lower respiratory tract
epliglottis lid-like structure at the base of the tongue; swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so that food does not enter the trachea and lungs
trachea windpipe; tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest; role is to transport air to, and from, the lungs
bronchi trachea divides into two branches known as the primary bronchi
bronchioles smallest branches of the bronchi, thousands the terminal bronchioles are the last of the conducting airways
alveoli air sacs; very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole
surfactant detergent like substance produced by the lungs that reduces the surface tension of the lungs and allows air to flow over the lungs and be absorbed more easily
pleura thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage
parietal pleura outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
visceral pleura inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung
pleural cavity airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes; contains a thin layer of fluid that allows the membranes to slide easily during breathing
diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen; contraction and relaxation of this muscle makes breathing possible
phrenic nerves stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung disease in which it is hard to breathe; damage to the bronchi partially obstructs them, making it difficult to get air in and out
chronic bronchitis airways have become inflamed and thickened and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells; results in excessive mucus production which in turn causes coughing and difficulty getting air into and out of lungs
bronchospasm contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
hyperventilation abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety
sputum plegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes
phlegm thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages
Bronchoconstriction constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
Pulmonary Shunt Perfusion without ventilation. pneumonia
Deadspace Ventilation without perfusion. Pulmonary emboli
Exhale muscle rectus and transverse abdominus, external and internal oblique
Inhale muscle scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, and pectoralis major
Trachea 16-20 C-shaped cartilages, 12cm length, 2.0-2.5cm diameter, bifurcates 21-23 from the mouth to carina into R&L mainstem bronchi
Nose function warm, humidify, filter
Created by: ckongsine
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