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The American Republi

American Colonies in the British Empire

The French and Indian War decided who would control the North American continent, specifically the Ohio Valley; also called the Seven Years War
Fort Duquesne At the point where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers join to form the Ohio river, present day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Virginians built it, the French attacked before it was finished and claimed it
guerilla warfare Native Americans introduced this style of fighting to the French; hiding behind trees waiting to ambush the British
The Albany Plan of Union 1754, Benjamin Franklin created a call for the creation of a grand council made up of delegates from all the colonies; 1st attempt to unite the colonies (though it failed)
Pontiac's War Ottowan Indian chief organized tribes from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico to "stop the entrance of the white man" into the western frontier, by capturing forts and terrorizing settlers
Proclamation of 1763 British king issued this which banned colonists from going west of the Appalachian Mountains much to the dismay of the colonists
Quartering Act of 1765 to defend their holdings in America, Britain left thousands of troops; colonists were ordered to house, heat and feed them
Navigation and Trade Acts mercantilistic policy that controlled trade between the colonies and Britain's rivals to supposedly raise revenue for the British treasury; caused colonists to smuggle
writs of assistance general search warrants that British customs officials used to search for smuggled goods
Sugar Act (1764) duties placed on imported goods, such as molasses, coffee, silks, sugar, and idigo, to help pay for British protection in the colonies
The Stamp Act (1765) required colonial businessmen and lawyers to purchase special stamps and place them on items that were taxed, such as legal documents, calendars, newspapers and playing cards
"No taxation without representation" colonial rallying cry to protest the taxes that the British Parliament was imposing on them (violating their republican principles)
Sons of Liberty organizers of rallies to protest the Stamp Act by using intimidation to deter the collectors that often turned violent
Stamp Act Congress 1765, nine delegates from the colonies met in New York at the urging of Samuel Adams to discuss imposed taxes; sent petition to King George III pledging their loyalty, but insisting on representation in Parliament; king denied, (led to boycott)
3 reasons Britain tightened control over American colonies Britain had a large empire, colonies only half-heartedly supported the wars against France, colonial merchants had traded with Britain's enemies during the war
Townshend Acts (1767) new duties on glass, paper, lead and tea which led to more colonial boycotting of English goods and smuggling
tarring and feathering method of intimidating British tax collectors
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 result of men and boys taunting British soldiers sent to keep order by throwing snowballs and stones at them. The troops then fired into the mob, killing 5 and wounding 6
The Bloody Massacre Paul Revere's propaganda which somewhat misrepresented the tensions between the British soldiers
Committee of Correspondence group formed by Samuel Adams in Boston to promote resistance to Britain; soon became important in alerting the colonists to British threats
Tea Act (1773) imposed to help the struggling East India Company by allowing them to monopolize on tea trade to America
Intolerable Acts (1774) designed to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party rebellious act by men dressed as Indians; poured ships of tea overboard instead of paying taxes on it, costing Britain $$$$
The Boston Port Act closed the port of Boston to trade until the destroyed tea was paid for, charter was changed to give British more control, and citizens lost their right to elect representatives
the Quebec Act in the newly acquired Canada territory this act allowed French law to be used in civil cases and extended its borders south to the Ohio River
How did merchants avoid the Townshend taxes? They smuggled goods past British customs agents
Patrick Henry "Give me liberty or give me death"
First Continental Congress September 5, 1774, Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, men from each colony EXCEPT Georgia met to discuss opposition to the Intolerable Acts, created a formal statement of protest called the Declaration of Rights and Grieveances
minutemen militiamen who were ready at a moment's notice to fight
Created by: Ms. Marshall