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US History Unit 5

US History 11th Grade Unit 5 Era of Good Feelings - Manifest Destiny

QuestionAnswer
Era of Good Feelings a period of time (1815 to 1825) during Monroe’s presidency that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans.
1-Party System because of the pride and national unity after the War of 1812 one political party emerges (Democratic-Republicans) and the Federalist Party disintegrates.
Judicial Review a review by the US Supreme Court concerning the constitutional validity of a legislative act that was established by the case of Marbury v. Madison in 1803 which strengthened the Federal government.
American System 3 part 1. Protection of domestic industry and manufacturers 2. Second Bank of the United States 3. Internal Development
American System Part 1 Protection of Domestic Industry & Manufacturers (American industry developed because of the embargos during the War of 1812)
American System Part 2 Second Bank of U S (Gave the government the ability to easily borrow and lend money and regulate trade)
American System Part 3 Internal Development (improve infrastructure by building more roads and canals to help unite American businesses and in turn made products cheaper)
Adam-Onis Treaty also known as the Florida Treaty renounced any claim of the United States to Texas and fixed the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase.
Monroe Doctrine statement issued by Pres Monroe to the rest of the world (mainly Europe) to stay out of Latin America & not colonize there; reinforcing Washington’s Farewell Address & neutrality policy; & established America as the “protectors of the Western Hemisphere”
Erie Canal opened in 1825 in New York and linked the east coast (Hudson River) with the Great Lakes and Mississippi River which made goods cheaper to ship and lowed the price of good for the consumer.
Robert Fulton created the Steam Boat in 1807 which allowed businesses to ship goods upstream.
Sam Slater developed the “factory” where there were large factories with machine labor – workers perform specific tasks which allowed businesses to hire unskilled workers, widespread use of child labor, and factories explode in number and size.
Eli Whitney inventor of the cotton gin. Also engineered a system of interchangeable parts which allowed for mass production
Commercial Agriculture producing crops on a large scale with the intent to sell
Corrupt Bargain the Election of 1824 the House elected John Q Adams over Andrew Jackson (Jackson won the most popular & electoral votes/did not have the majority). Clay (the speaker of the House) convinced Congress to elect Adams & Adams made Clay his Sect of State.
Mudslinging Campaign the strategy of attacking a candidates’ character rather than his policies and political viewpoints (still happening today)
National Republicans also known as the Anti-Jacksonian Party was a political party in the US during the administration of John Quincy Adams. The president’s supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson. (1825 to 1829)
Spoils System the practice of a successful political party giving public offices to its supporters (appointing party loyalists to government positions)
Kitchen Cabinet a group of advisers (after Jackson’s cabinet is dissolved in the 1830 Petticoat Affair he created a new “unofficial cabinet”)
Nullification Crisis crisis that occurred when S Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 & 1832 were unconstitutional & unenforceable within it’s state; any attempts to use force to collect the taxes would lead to the state’s secession. Tariff of 1828 /Nullification/Force Bill
Nullification Crisis Tariff of 1828 was passed at the end of Adam’s presidency and the Southerners argued that it helped northern business at the expense of southern farmers. South Carolina refused to pay it.
Nullification Crisis Nullification the legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina supported the idea of nullification.
Nullification Crisis Force Bill bill empowering the President to use the armed forces to enforce federal laws. Jackson gets the Force Bill passed to send troops to S Carolina to enforce the tariff. S Carolina in turn withdraws the nullification argument and Congress lessens the Tariff.
Indian Removal Act this happens because Jackson wanted to move natives to the Great Plains in Oklahoma. This act gave money to Native Americans to go to the reservations.
Worcester v. Georgia The Cherokee tribe fought the Indian Removal Act in this court case where John Marshall rules in favor of the Cherokee keeping their land but Jackson does not uphold the ruling.
Trail of Tears The result/end of the dispute over the Indian Removal Act where troops force the Cherokee in stockades at bayonet point and marched them more than 1,200 miles on foot to Oklahoma and over 4,000 die along the journey due to illness and starvation.
Panic of 1837 financial crisis of Van Buren’s brought by closing of National Bank & issuing of Specie circular (demand of bank paymnts in gold/silver) started a major recession that lasted until the mid -1840’s (profits, prices & wages went down & unemployment up).
"Tippecanoe & Tyler Too" William Henry Harrison &John Tyler (Whig) run for the pres/vice-presagainst Van Buren (Demo). People are sick of the Depression/ Harrison wins & dies 32 days later. Tyler becomes pres. - former demo & unpopular with Whigs b/c he blocks their policies
Manifest Destiny the American belief that the US has the God-given right to expand west and settle all lands from “sea to shining sea”
John Deere inventor of the steel plow which was used for farming to break up the tough soil of the mid-west without getting stuck or breaking as the wood plows did.
Cyrus McCormick inventor of the mechanical reaper which automatically cut, threshed, and bundled grain while being pulled through a field by horses.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna self-declared dictator of Texas in 1834
Sam Houston the person who led American settlers in Texas in a revolution against Santa Anna in 1836.
Battle of San Jacinto a major victory due to a surprise attack by Houston’s men where Santa Anna was captured and forced to surrender. Mexican forces never recover.
James K. Polk the 11th president who was a democrat and favored annexation of Texas and full occupation of Oregon.
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight" The popular slogan that led Polk to victory, eventually became the motto in 1846 (line of latitude between Oregon and Alaska). The northern boundary of Oregon was the latitude line of 54 degrees, 40 minutes.
Zachary Taylor The general Polk ordered to move troops to the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican attacked a small group of Americans, Polk said they have shed “American blood on American soil” and he used this to send us to war.
Winfield Scott the general Polk replaced Taylor with to invade central Mexico. Polk pulled Taylor because he was disturbed by his informal habits of command and the fact that he was a Whig. Scott captured Mexico City and Mexico surrendered.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo The Mexican Cession of 1848. The Rio Grande River becomes the southern border of Texas and the United States pays Mexico $15 and gets what is now California, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Nevada.
Seneca Falls Conference a conference organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton who was an advocate for women’s full rights. This even marked the beginning of organized efforts by women to gain the same rights as men. (Susan B. Anthony fought for women’s suffrage – the right to vote).
Nationalism a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries
Embargo a government order that limits trade in some way such as a ban on trade with a nation (Britain/France)
Implied Powers a power that is not specifically delegated to the federal government by the U.S. Constitution but that is implied by the necessary and proper clause to be delegated for the purpose of carrying out the enumerated powers
Capitalism a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government
Social Mobility More social opportunities because of more jobs and higher wages allowing people to move up the social ladder (very attractive to immigrants).
Sectionalism a tendency to be more concerned with the interests of your particular group or region than with the problems and interests of the larger group, country, etc.
Suffrage the right to vote in an election
Laissez Faire belief that government should not be involved with the economy.
Protective Tariff A duty imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition.
Abolition the action or an act of abolishing a system, practice, or institution.
Temperance moderation or self-restraint - People should drink less alcohol
Created by: Two Kids