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Nutrition Midterm

Topic III

QuestionAnswer
What are 3 local stimuli of the intestinal glands? Mechanical/Chemical; Physical; Psycological
What type of stimulation generally increases the rate of gastro-intestinal secretions? parasympathetic via Vagus nerve
What is the function of mucus? Lubrication of foods and AT wall (mucopolysaccharides); Buffer (amphoteric) glycoproteins
What is the universal secretion of AT? mucus
What is the composisiton of saliva? How do they look and what do they contain? Serous-thin and contains enzymes; Mucus-thick and contains mucopolysaccharides; All saliva contains electrolytes, thyociante, Lysozyme, and Antibodies
What is the pH of saliva? 6-7 (alkaline-acidic food)
What are the 3 main functions of saliva? Lubrication via mucoproteins, Digestion via salivary amylase, and Oral Hygeine via thiocyanate, Lysozyme, and protein antibodies
How are salivary glands contolled? Parasympathetic nervous signals from the salivary nuclei
Is the presence of food in the mouth required to secrete saliva? No for mucus saliva and Yes for serous saliva
Are the esophageal secretions mainly mucus or serous? mucus
What do the gastric/oxynic glands secrete? HCl, Pepsinogen, Mucus, Intrinsic Factor
What is made by parietal cells just outside the cell? HCl
What is made by chief cells? Pepsinogen
What is maid by neck cells? Mucus
What is made by parietal cells? Intrinsic Factor
What is the only body enzyme which is secreted in acidic pH? Pepsinate
What is pepsinate activated to in the lumen of gastic glands by HCl? Pepsin... does NOT HAPPEN OUSIDE CHIEF CELLS
What is the main function of intrinsic factor? Absorption of B12 from distal ileum
How much gastric juice is produced per day? 1.5L
How does the nervous and hormonal systems regulate gastric secretions? 70% is controlled by Vagus Nerve; 30% is controlled by endocrine system (gastrin)
Where are trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, nuclease, elastase, amylase-starch, lipase-triglycerides, phospholipidase-lecithin secreted? in the pancreatic juice
What is acute pancreatis? Inflammation of the pancreatic glands
How does acute pancreatis affect the exocrine enzymes and endocrine hormones/ Exocrine enzymes will be ABNORMAL; Endocrine hormone secretion will be absorbed
What does alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, infections, drugs, and excess proteins that inhibit Trypsin inhibitor cause? Acute pancreatits?
What are the functions of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice? buffer the acid chyme to create optimal condition for enzymatic activities
What does secretin stimulate the secretion of? bicarbonates from duct cells
What does chlecystokinin stimulate the secreation of? enzymes from acinar cells
What is the composition of bile? water, electrolytes (Na,Cl, K, etc), and pigments (bilirubin), bile salts, FFA, lecithin, cholesterol
What is the most notorius substanc in bile that can cause gall stones? cholesterol
What is the only digestive juice w/out an enzyme secretion? bile
What is the main function of gall bladder? concentration and storage of bile
What is responsible for gall bladder contractions? CCK hormone and Fats
What relaxes the sphincter oddi? CCK hormone
What is the precursor of bile salt? cholesterol
What are 2 important functions of bile salt? Emulsification and micelle formation
What is a sac contiang fat and fat soluble nutrients Micelle
What are 2 things that the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts prevents? premature aging of the liver and colon cancer
What secretes mucus to protect the duodenal lining against peptic ulcers in the SI? Brunner's glands
Why are people suffering from diarrhea if infected by the cholera toxin? increased fluids in jejunum->loss of 5-10L of water->dehydration->circulating shock->death
What are the small intestine enzymes? Sucrase, Lactase, Isomaltase, Maltase
What is the function of the SI enzymes? hydrolyze smaller molecules
The greater amount of chyme leads to? greater amount of SI secretions
What is the major secretion of LI? mucus
Are enzymes secreted in the LI? yes if they are secreted by bacteria; No if they are endogenous
What are the raw materials for making HCl? Water, CO2, Cl
What will a Zn deficiency cause and why? decrease in HCl because Zn is needed to convert Co2 and water into H2CO3
What is one of the few cells used to make CO2? Parietal Cell
Is Hcl produced in the lumen or in the parietal cell? Lumen of Gastric Gland
In the pancreatic exocrine gland, what cells secrete enzymes? Acinar cells
In the pancreatic exocrine gland, what cells secrete water and electrolytes? Duct cells
In the pancreatic exocrine gland, the foods we eat in our diet travel to the duodenum and produce CCK which goes to what cells? Acinar
How does acid chyme travel in the pancreatic exocrine gland? Duodenum->secretin->Duct Cells
The Duct cells and acinar cells both produce? pancreatic juice
What type of rate of pancreatic secretion is it when there is a higher number of water and electrolytes and a lower number of enzymes? What type of chyme does this indicate and why is this chyme produced? Hydrelatic...thin duct cells are active; Acid chyme due to caffeine and alcohol
What type of rate of pancreatic secretion is it when there is normal consisitency of water and electrolytes with enzymes? What type of chyme is this and due to what? Normal duct and acinar cells; Normal Chyme due to a good meal
What type of rate of pancreatic secretion is it when there is a higher number of enzymes than there is water and electrolytes? What type of chyme is this and due to what? Ecbolic...thick acinar cells; Proteins-rich chyme from proteins
What type of chyme is the most dangerous? Protein-rich chyme
What hormone can lead to Hydrelatic or Normal conditions? Secretin
What hormone can lead to Ecbolic or Normal conditions CCK
Why should we reabsorb 94% of bile salts? Prevent premature aging of liver cells, prevent cancer of colon, and prevent LI infections
What is the entero-hepatic circulation of bile salts Liver bile->gallbladder->bile duct->Duodenum->Jejunum->ileum->Portal venous system or Feces
What percent of bile salts are seen in the feces? 6%
What is food for pathogenic bacteria? bile salt
What is the main function of the SI? reabsorption
Created by: SparkleBabies