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Nutrition Midterm

Topic II

What is the primary function of the AI Tract? provide continuous nutrient supply
What 3 other functions does the AI Tract do moves food, secretes digestive juices and enzymes, digestion/absorption of nutrients
Motor functions of the guta re performed by the different types of? smooth muscles
What are the 5 layers of smooth muscle Serosa, Longitudinal muscles, cirucluar muscles, sub-mucosa, mucosa
What 2 layers of smooth muscle are for peristalsis? What layer has hormones? What layer has mucus and enzymes? peristalsis=Longitudinal and circular; homones=sub-mucosa; mucus and enzymes=mucosa
How is the action potential of the GI musculature conducted? by individual muscle fibers in a well coordinated fashion
The GI tract has a nervous system of it's own and it is called? enteric nervous systme
How many neurons are in the enteric nervous system and what 2 things make up the ENS? about 100,000,000 neurons...same as spinal cord; made up of myenteric and submucosal/meissner's plexus
What plexus controls peristalsis and is located b/w longitudinal and circular muscle layers? myenteric
What plexus controls GI secretions and is located b/w submucosa and mucosa cells? Meissner's/Submucosa
What are the 2 most important transmitters identified in the enteric plexuses? ACH and NE
How does the Sympathetic and parasymptathetic innervations affect the GI tract? Sympathetics inhibit & PS stimulate
What 3 things can stimulate afferent nerve fibers? mechanical, chemical, phsychological
What are the 3 gastro-intestinal reflexes? Local signals, Long distance signals, Long-long distance signals
What reflex is found w/in the enteric NS and stimulates peristalsis, secretions, and mixing? Local signals
What reflex travels from gut to sypathetic chain ganglia and back to gut? These are also gastro-colic and entero-gastric reflexes. Long distance signals
What reflex travels from gut to spinal cord/brain and back to gue that also has gastric moor and secretory activities and gerally inhibits GI tract and defecation reflex Long/Long distance signals
What is the main function of Gastrin and what secretes it? increases gastrin motility; secreted by gastric submucosal cells
What is the main function of Cholecystokinin and secretin and what secretes them? Decrease gastric motility and increases intestinal motility; secreted by duodenum sub-mucosa
What is the basic propulsive movement of the GI tract? peristalsis
What are the 4 main functions of peristalsis? helps in physical digestion of food, prevents constipation and other GI problems, prevents gastric, intestinal, colonic, and rectal cancers, & maintains regularity
The basic stimulus for peristalsis is? distension
What are two other stimuli for peristalsis and which is the best? Chemicals in food & various fibers (lignin)
What foods is chewing very important for? fruits/veggies, starchy food
What in the mouth helps break up starches such as bread, pasta, potatoes, and rice? Salivary Amylase
What are 3 things for why chewing is important? Increases surface area of food particles; Prevents premature aging of stomach and pancrease
What % of dietary starch is hydrolyzed by salivary amylase? 40
What are the 3 stages of swallowing? Voluntary, Pharyngeal, Esophageal
What are the 3 motor functions of the stomach? Mixing(HCl, mucus, enzymes) Storage(maximize digestion) Emptying
What valve prevents dumping of food from stomach to SI? Pyloric valve
What is the approximate gastric time for water, milk, and a meal? water(0-10min), milk(20-30), meal(2hour)
How is bolus of dietary starch hydrolyzed? 40% in mouth by salivary amylase, and then the majority in the stomach
What is produced in the stomach and broken down in the SI? Chyme
Where are proteins converted to peptones/partially hydrolyzed proteins? chyme
What are normal, strong rhythmic peristaltic contractions confined to the body of the stomach that often occur when stomach has been empty for several hours? Hunger contractions
What are abnormal very weak peristaltic movements that occur througout the GI tract predominantly to starvation conditions? Hunger pangs
What are 2 factors that can elicit 'enterogastric reflex'? increase food volume and gastrin
What is the main function of the enterogastric reflex? reduce acidity in the stomach
What are 2 movements of the SI? propulsive contractions and mixing
What is the main function of the ileo-cecal valve? to prevent backflow of toxic contents
What are 3 other small functions of the ileo-cecal vavle? Maximize hydrolysis and absorption of nutrients of SI, Increase absorption of vit B12; Endogenous reabsorption of bile salts from distal ileum
What is the function of the colon? Reabsorption of water and electrolytes; storage of fecal matter
Is the rectum usually empty? What triggers it to fill? yes it is empty and the voluntary defecation signals it to fill
What are 3 autonomic reflexes that affect bowel activity? Peritoneointestinal, renointestinal, vesicointestinal
Created by: SparkleBabies