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Nutrition Midterm

Topic I

What is the science of food and other substances in it, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease? Nutrition
What is a combination of nutrients that are responsible to produce energy, build or repair body tissues, and regulate body processes? Food
What are the 3 broad functions of a living organisms? energy, build or repair, and regulate
What are 6 non-nutrients? Alcohol, Nicotine, Caffeine, preservatives, coloring agents, phytochemicals.
What is the best non-nutrient? phytochemical
What are phytochemicals and are they beneficial to humans? They are plant chemicals isolated from plants that rae beneficial to humans.
What are 5 examples of phytochemicals? Allium sulfides, Capsaicin, Carotenoids, Indoles, Isoflavones
What phytochemical is found in garlic and onions and is an antibiotic? Allium sulfide
What phytochemical is in hot pepper and is an antibiotic and anticancer agent? Capsaicin
What phytochemical is in carrots, tomatoes, sweet potatos, and dark greens and is also an anti-oxidant? Carotenoids
What phytochemical is in brocoli, vegetables, brussel sprouts and is an anticancer agent? Indoles
What phytochemical is in soybens, peanuts, soymilk and is an anti-dermatitis agent? Isoflavones
What phytochemicals are antibiotic? Allium sulfides and Capsaicin
What phytochemicals are anti-cancer agents? Capsaicin and Indoles
What is action? ingestion, digestion, absorption, excretion
Is interaction between nutrients understood? no
What two things lead to an imbalance in homeostasis? deficiency and toxicity
What can deficiency and toxicity lead to? disease/disorder
What is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water to 1 degree celcius? Calorie
What are chemical substances in food? Nutrients
What are the 6 major groups of nutrients? carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
What is the most important group? water
How do you calculate body weight? 100lbs=5 feet; additional inches in females (5lbs) and in males (6lbs)
How do you calculate the normal range? +/- 10% of body weight
How do you calculate the ideal weight? Lowest number of range=couch potato/small frame; Middle number of range=moderate/medium frame; Highest number of range=active/large frame
WHat is overweight? up to 20% of the upper limit of normal
What is obese? Greater than overwight number due to excess fat
What does it mean to be normal overweight? greater than overweight number due to excess muscle
What is the energy required to maintain your activities at rest? Energy required for Basal Metabolism
How do you calculate EBM for females? 10 kcal/lb of IDEAL BODY WEIGHT
How do you calculate EBM for males? 11 kcal/lb of IDEAL BODY WEIGHT
How do you calculate Total Energy Requirements? TER = BM + Activity
What % is used for a sedentary activity / small frame? 25% of BM
What % is used for moderate activity / medium frame? 50% of BM
What % is used for active activity / large frame? 75% of BM
How many kcal does 1 lb of body fat equal? 3500 kcal
What is a process of breakdown of food particles in the Alimentary tract? Digestion
What parts of the body represent the Alimentary tract? Mouth, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, rectum, anus
What parts of the body represent the gut/git? stomach, SI, LI
What are the 2 types of digestion? Physical & Chemical
What two things make up physical digestion? Mastification in the oral cavity & Peristalsis in the SI/LI
What makes up chemical digestion and is the most important and predominant? Hydrolysis in mouth, stomach, and SI
What are the 3 types of Absorption? Active transport, Fascilitated Diffusion, Diffusion
What type of absorption is energy mediated and what is an example? Active, glucose
What type of absoroption is a carrier and what is an example? Fascilitated diffusion, fructose
What type of absorption is due to osmosis and what is an example? Diffusion, water
What is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely an abscence of a disease or disorder? Health
What are the 3 broad functions of nutrients? Energy producers, Builders or Repaires, Regulators or Coordinators
What 3 nutrients are energy producers? Carbs, Fats, Proteins
What is the best energy producer because is the primary fuel for brain, lungs, and RBCs? Carbs
What energy producer is primary fuel for heart muscle and is the most utilized source? Fat
What energy producer is a metabolically expesive source and should be spared? Proteins
How many kcal does 1 gram of Carbs equal? Fats? Proteins? Carbs(4), Proteins(4), Fats(9)
What are monosaccharide, disaccharides, and polysachharides characteristic of? Carbs
What are saturated, monosaturated, and polysaturated characteristic of? Fats
What are complete and incomplete characteristic of? Proteins
What 3 nutrients are builders or repairers? Proteins, Minerals, Water
Where are proteins found? in all body cells
Where are minerals found and what minerals are used for building/repairing? in bones and teeth; Ca, P, F
What % of body weight is water? 66%
Are all body enzymes proteins? yes
What are the 5 regulators/coordinators? Proteins, minerals, water, vitamins, fiber
What nutrient is enzymes and hormones? proteins
What nutrient is a cofactor? minerals
What nutrient is a solvent? Water
What nutrient is a coenzyme? vitamin
What nutrient is important for peristalsis? fiber
How do you calculate 1 pound of carbohydrates? 4 X 454 = 1816kcal
How do you calculate 1 ounce of proteins? 4 X 28 = 112kcal
How do you calculate 1 pound of fat? 9 X 454 = 4086kcal
What determines if some one is a normal eater? eatin 2-3 meals a day
What determines if some one is a nibbler? eathing more than 3 meals a day
What determines if some one is a gorger? eating one meal a day
In a sample of 500 individuals, physically active persons showed a tendency to be what kind of eaters? nibblers
Obese individuals tended to show what kind of eating tendencies? gorged more
Do single people have less regular dietary habits than married people? yes
What are 2 things food gorging is associated with? cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption
What are 5 consequences of gorging? enlargement of stomach and SI, Increased digestion and absorption of fat due to increased activity of lipolytic enzymes, Enhanced absorption of glucose per unit time, Increases serum insulin, Enhanced synthesis of cholesterol
What is the difference of eating white bread versus wheat bread? Wheat bread has far more nutrients than white bread.
In white bread, what 2 things are decreased that can cause skin problems? Polyunsaturated fat and Niacin(B3)
A decrease in what 3 nutrients in white bread can cause fatigue? Panto. Acid (B5), Folic Acid (B9), Iron
A decrease in what 2 nutrients in white bread can cause cancer? Vitamin E and Selenium
What are the top 6 killers in humans? Heart Disease, Constipation/Colon & Rectal Cancer, Stroke, Liver Disease, Pancrease/Obesity, Kidney/too much proteins
How many glasses of milk should one drink per day? 2
What types of meats should one eat? What has less fat and cholesterol? Lean meats in poultry and seafood
How could one get a mutual supplementation of proteins? cereals and legumes
How many fruits and vegetable should one eat a day and which are really good? 3-4; citrus fruits, tomatoes, dark green or yellow veggies
Should one eat whole grain products or refined bread? whole grain
What type of oil shoul one use for cooking? corn oil or sunflower oil
How much water should one drink per day? 6-8 glasses
What are a few things one should avoid? processed foods, sweets, pastries, soft drinks
How should one eat regarding meals? do not skip breakfast and eat small more frequent meals...nibbler
What type of exercise should one do? light to moderate, 20 minutes/7days a week
How long should someone sleep each night? at least 6 hours
Why should someone avoid stress? stress leads to increased oxidation and excretion of B vitamins and vitamin C
Created by: SparkleBabies