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American Independenc

TermDefinition
Unalienable Rights Rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. Examples in the Declaration of Independence- life, liberty, pursuit of happiness.
French and Indian War 1754-63/ Great Britain and France/both wanted Ohio River Valley on other side of App. Mts./ caused British massive debt/ imposed taxes (tariffs) on colonists to pay for it.
Tyranny Cruel and oppressive government or rule
Proclamation of 1763 Colonists forbidden to settle west of the App.Mts./Britain wanted zone between colonists Native Americans (reduce threat of violence)/ colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio River Valley
Sugar Act 1764 Placed a tax on molasses in the colonies.
Stamp Act 1765 tax on printed goods/newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, legal documents, and playing cards/ imposed without colonist’s consent/ colonists begin boycotts of British goods
Townshend Act 1767 Charles Townshend/ taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea
“No Taxation without Representation” Colonists battle cry/ colonists did not have direct representation in Britain's law-making body (Parliament)
Militia Army of citizens who serve as soldiers in times of emergency
Minutemen Volunteers who trained for the militia/ prepared to fight at a minute’s notice
Loyalists Loyal to the Monarch (King)/ against Dec. of Ind.
Patriot Fought for freedom/ favored war
Boston Massacre 1770 March 5th/ British troops (redcoats) and Boston citizens/ Patriots angered British troops/ British killed 5 *The Bloody Massacre Art
Tea Act 1773 permitted the British East India Tea Company to sell tea at a lower price than colonial tea companies/required colonists to purchase tea that was taxed.
Civil Disobedience Refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one's moral conviction or belief. Dec. of Ind.
Boston Tea Party 1773 December 16/ a political protest by the Sons of Liberty against the Tea Act of 1773/ colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor
First Continental Congress 1774 Philadelphia, PA/ organized the colonists
Intolerable Acts 1774 Boston Tea Party made British leaders Intolerant/ British Parliament passed laws to punish MA colony/ closed Boston Harbor/ banned assemblies/ laws so harsh the colonists called them the Intolerable Acts.
Quartering Act 1774 One of the Intolerable Acts/ required colonists to provide shelter and supplies to British troops
Common Sense 1776/ Written by Thomas Paine/persuaded Americans to join the Patriot cause for Independence
Battles of Lexington and Concord 1775 Villages near Boston/ 1st battles of the war/ "The shot heard 'round the world"/ colonists killed/ British forced to retreat at Concord Bridge/ Paul Revere's ride
Second Continental Congress 1775 When and where to attack British/issued paper money/postal system/first Navy formed
Declaration of Independence 1776 July 4 / written by Thomas Jefferson / Second Continental Congress/ Americans declared independence from Great Britain/ Preamble stresses natural rights/ contains 27 grievances (complaints) towards King George III including Quartering Act/
Articles of Confederation 1777-81/ written at Second Continental Congress to establish a gov't plan/ 1st Amer. constitution/ WEAK/ ability to declare war & make treaties/ operate post offices/ document limited power of Congress by giving states final authority over all decisions.
Battle of Saratoga 1777 fall / France sided with colonists/ turning point of war
Winter at Valley Forge 1777 winter/ militias became professional army/ winter was harsh/men suffered from starvation and frostbite.
Battle of Yorktown 1781 October 19, 1781/ surrender of British General Cornwallis/ brought end of war
Treaty of Paris 1783 ended Revolution/ recognized independence from British rule, boundaries extended to Canada in the North, gained land to Mississippi River in the West, and Florida in the South.
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams/gave support while he served in Continental Congress/ "Remember the ladies" - laws don’t apply if no voice
Civic Virtue Standard of moral behavior in relationship to a citizen's responsibility within society. Examples
John Adams Lawyer/ defended British soldiers after Boston Massacre/member of Continental Congress (MA)/ supporter of independence/ displayed civic virtue - court of law should determine justice/ second cousin to Sam Adams
Samuel Adams Patriot who lead the Sons of Liberty/ stirred public support
Wentworth Cheswell African-American/all-night ride/ warn of British invasion/ army/ Battle of Saratoga
Paul Revere Silversmith and engraver/ all-night ride/ “One if by land, two if by sea” - lanterns
Mercy Otis Warren Wife of a MA Patriot, wrote propaganda (to influence) supporting of the Patriot cause/ earliest documents of war
James Armistead Slave in Virginia/ Lafayette recruited him as a colonial spy/ became double agent/ forger and servant at British headquarters/ moved freely/ contributed to the American victory at Yorktown
Benjamin Franklin Dec of Ind committee/ negotiated alliance with King Louis XVI of France to send french troops to colonies
Bernardo de Galvez Spanish nobleman/ protected American ships in New Orleans
Crispus Attucks African-American/ first casualty/ killed in Boston Massacre
Haym Salomon Polish-born Jewish immigrant/ helped finance the Revolution/ arrested by British as a spy
Marquis de Lafayette French aristocrat/ commanding role in both France and American Revolution.
George Washington Soldier in the French and Indian War, delegate 1st commander-in-chief of the Continental (Colonial) Army/ served as President of the Philadelphia Convention/1st President in 1789
Benedict Arnold Traitor to Continental Army/ went against Washington’s troops
Patrick Henry Patriot against taxes/ “Give me liberty or give me death”
Women Patriots Contributions including propaganda pamphlets, Battle of Monmouth, military fundraising, espionage
Revolutionary Era Artwork Portraits very common, popular
John Paul Jones U.S. Navy MVP
King George III Feared loss of one colony would lead to loss of others = cause a decline in English Empire/ ordered blockade of colonial ports/ hired German mercenaries to help fight colonists
Ethan Allen led Green Mountain Boys surprise attack at Fort Ticonderoga
Battle of Bunker Hill British drive the Americans from Breed's Hill
Created by: pdelam4