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BB 451 redox/oxy

QuestionAnswer
oxidative phosphorylation definition the process by which energy derived from a series of oxidation/reduction reactions (that use NADH as electron donor and oxygen as ultimate electron acceptor) is used to phosphorylate ADP
what does the matrix of the mitochondria contain pyruvate DH, most CAC enzymes, and other enzymes
what does the inner membrane of the mitochondria contain electron transport system, ATP synthase complexes and specific carrier proteins called antiporters and synporters; impermeable to all molecules not carried by transporter protein
outer membrane of mitochondria permeable to most small molecules due to channel proteins called porins
cristae of mitochondria invaginations that serve to increase surface area of inner membrane
intermembrane space dlectrochemically distinc from matrix (because inner membrane is impermeable); electrochemically equivalent to cytosol (because of porins)
reducing equivalent designates a single electron equivaltent in a redox reaction
types of redox reactions 1.direct electron transfer-transfer of e- between metal ions 2.transfer in the form of H atom-flavin linked DHs such as succinate DH 3.electron transfer in the form of hydride ion; NAD-linked DHs such as malate DH 4.replacement of CC or CH with CO,CS,CN
standard reduction potential a measure of a compounds propensity to donate electrons. Eo, which is measure using molecular hydrogen (H2) as the reference standard
how is standard reduction potential measured measuring the voltage difference between a H half cell and a half cell containing a 1M solution of the test compound and its conjugate oxidized form
Eo<0 if test compound donates electrons more readily than H2, electrons will flow from test cell to reference cell (the voltage will be negative)
Eo>0 test compound donates its electrons less readily than H2, electrons flow from reference cell to test cell (the voltage will be positive)
lower Eo the lower the Eo the greater the tendency to lose electrons
reclinamonas all present day mitochondria contain a subset of the genes present in reclinamonas mitochondria
what does the ETS consist of 4 multiprotein respiratory complexes and two carriers that shuttle reducing equivalents between the complexes
ETS complex 1 (NADH-Q oxidoreductase) 34 subunits, oxidizes NADH, reduces coenzyme A; prosthetic groups are flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters, pumps 4 protons
ETC complex 2 (Succinate-Q reductase) 4 subunits, oxidizes succinate, reduces Q, prosthetic groups are flavin adenin dinucleotide (FAD) and FE-S clusters, does not pump protons
ETS complex 3 (Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) 10 subunits, oxidizes Q, reduces cytochrome; prosthetic groups are Fe-S clusters, Q, and hemes bH, bL and c1 (Fe-containing porphorin rings) pumps 2 protons
ETS complex 4 (Cytochrome c oxidatase) 10 subunits, oxidizes CytC, reduces 02; prosthetic groups are hemes a and a3 and copper-containing porpherin rings CuA and CuB, pumps 4 protons
Coenzyme Q hydrophobic compound that diffuses freely in lipid bilayer, fully reduced form (QH2) carries 2 reducing equivalents, shuttles reducing equivalents from complex 1&2 to complex 3
cytochrome C small soluble protein loosely associated with cytosolic side of inner membrane; heme prosthetic group; shuttles one elctron at a time to complex 4
ATP synthase complex complex acts like turbine, a,b2, sigma, alpha and beta subunit stationary, and the co ring and attached gamma and epsilon subunits rotate
what does the beta subunit bind adenine nucleotides, has ATPase activity and is the site of ATP synthesis
Created by: adam87
 

 



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